Home| Journals | Statistics Online Expert | About Us | Contact Us

    About this Journal  | Table of Contents

[Abstract] [PDF] [HTML] [Linked References]

International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, ISSN 2277-2812 E-ISSN: 2249-8109

Volume 11, Issue 3, July 2014 pp 335-340

Research Article

Investigation of a Hepatitis A outbreak in Panachkkad PHC area of Kottayam district Kerala by case control design

Areekal Binu1, Lawrence Tony2, Antony Lal3, M.J. Ajan4, R. Ajith5

{1Associate Professor, 4,5Post Graduate Student}, Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, INDIA.

2Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Manjery, Kerala, INDIA.

3Assistant Surgeon, Panachikkad Block PHC, Kottayam District, Kerala, INDIA.



Background: Viral Hepatitis (HAV) continues to be a major public health problem in India and is hyper-endemic for HAV infection. Early investigation of an epidemic of Hepatitis A will go a long way in containing the epidemic and preventing further transmission of the disease. Objectives: The objectives of the investigation were to describe the epidemiological features of the Hepatitis A outbreak which occurred in PHC Panackikkad in November to December 2013, to find out the source of infection and suggest measures to control spread of the epidemic. Setting and Design: The setting was wards 5,7,18 and 19 of Panachikkad PHC, Kottayam District, Kerala State, India and the study was done using a case control design. Methods: The areas for investigation were identified in consultation with the PHC officials. For each case at least four to five household or neighbourhood controls were taken after matching for age. A total of 121 individuals were interviewed. All the cases and controls were interviewed at their home using a structured interview schedule which included information regarding the demographic characteristics, source of water, personal hygiene, and treatment of water before consumption, habit of consuming food from outside home and past history of Hepatitis Statistical Analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft excel and was analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results and Conclusions: A total of 121 individuals were interviewed as part of the study. Total number of probable Hepatitis A patients identified in the study was 22. Ten of them had laboratory confirmed Acute Hepatitis A (IgM Positive). Among the cases 20 (90.9%) belonged to the 15-30 age group category and only 2 (9.1%) to the 31-45 age group category. The major risk factors of the Hepatitis outbreak which were found to be statistically significant were male sex; OR 4.979(1.572-15.771), Jaundice in the family; OR 7.6 (4.742-12.179), Thattukada eating; OR 18.28(4.33-77.218), Alcohol consumption; OR 13.32(4.116-43.1). The protective factors were Eating from home; OR 0.33(0.108-0.98) and Boiled water at home for drinking; OR 0.162 (0.056-0.474).