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International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, ISSN 2277-2812 E-ISSN: 2249-8109

Volume 14, Issue 3, April 2015 pp 537-539

Research Article

Changing trends of leptospirosis in Chennai city

A Shantha1, G Sumathi2, R Narayanan3, R Kanimozhi4, S Nivedita5, P Anchana6

{1Professor, Department of Obs and Gynaec} {2Professor, Department of Microbiology}

Sri Muthukumaran Medical College, Chennai-600 069, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

3,4Leptospirosis Research cell, Institute of Microbiology, MMC, Chennai-600 003, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

5Resident, Department of Paediatric, Southern Railway Headquarters Hospital, Chennai- 600 023, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

6M.B.B.S Student, Shree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai-600 044, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

Objective: Leptospirosis, a direct zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of different pathogenic species of the genus leptospira, is an emerging global health problem. Many outbreaks have been reported from Chennai in the past mainly due to rain and floods. Majority of the leptospiral infections are either subclinical or result in mild illness and recover without any complications. However, some develop serious complications due to involvement of multiple organ systems. In such patients, the clinical presentation depends upon the organs involved and the case fatality rate could be about 40-45% or more. Acute Febrile illness with muscle pain, febrile illness with pulmonary haemorrhage with haemoptysis, jaundice with pulmonary haemorrhage and haematuria, meningitis with subconjunctival haemorrhage and febrile illness with cardiac arrhythmias with or without haemorrhages are some of the syndromes. Since, published data on all the three tests together are inadequate, this study has been done to evaluate the efficacy in diagnosing human leptospirosis by assessing the changing serovar pattern of leptospirosis among the febrile cases in Chennai city. Method: Sera from patients with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis during September 2010 - February 2011 were examined by i) Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) ii)Macroscopic slide agglutination test (MSAT) and iii)Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA). The diagnosis of leptospirosis was observed by i) an initial titre of > 1in 80 or a fourfold rise in the titre of MAT, ii) a 3+ agglutination titre by MSAT was taken as positives iii) In IgM ELISA >11.0 panbio units were taken as positives. Results: 73 of 257 patients were found to be confirmed positives by MAT method. 20 showed a significant MAT titre 1 in 80, 51 cases were reactive with more than 1 in 80 titre.2 cases were reactive at 1 in 40 dilution.65 cases (89%) were found to be positive by MSAT. Only 60 cases were IgM ELISA positives. Conclusion: MSAT is a very sensitive and specific test for diagnosis of leptospirosis.