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International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, ISSN 2277-2812 E-ISSN: 2249-8109
Volume 14, Issue 3, April 2015 pp 499-506
Albumin creatinine ratio a predictor of coronary artery disease in essential hypertension patients
Manjula H S1, H V Shetty2, Usha S M R3, Priyadarshini K4, Nandini M D5, Victoria Ksh6
1,5,6Post Graduate II, 2Professor and HOD, 3,4Professor, Department of Biochemistry, RRMCH, Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA.
Objectives: Hypertension is a global public health problem with one fourth adults worldwide estimated to have high blood pressure (BP). About 1 billion people are affected by hypertension worldwide and 7.1 million deaths per year may be due to hypertension. Hypertension is the commonest, asymptomatic, readily detectable, usually easily treatable chronic cardiovascular disorder of concern, posing major health problem to all socioeconomic strata due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other vascular complications. Prevalence in the developing countries seems to be similar to that in the developed counties ranging from 10% to 20% among adults. In India, the prevalence of hypertension is 59.9 and 69.9 per 1000 males and females respectively in the urban and 35.5 and 35.9 per 1000 males and females respectively in rural populations. To reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, management strategies are increasingly focusing on preventive measures following early detection of markers of atherosclerosis. Thus focuses on microalbuminuria which is gaining recognition as a simple marker of atherogenic milieu, one because it reflects sub clinical vascular damage in the kidneys and other vascular beds, it may also signify endothelial dysfunction that predispose to future cardiovascular events. Methodology: A total of fifty cases of hypertensive patients were taken for the study after satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fifty age and sex matched normal individuals were included in the study under the control group. All patients were evaluated in detail and microalbinuria is defined as the albumin /creatinine ratio higher than 30mg/day and lower than 300mg/day. The spot morning urine sample was measured for microalbumin by Immunoturbidimetry method and for creatinine by Jaffe’s method. Results: Mean albumin creatinine ratio were calculated and compared between cases and controls. The Albumin Creatinine Ratio mg/gm of creatinine in cases was (35.02±22.45) and in controls is (17.33±6.99) with p =< 0.001 which showed strong significance. Age distribution of patient studied showed positive correlation with borderline increase in ACR as age increased, mean ±SD in cases (56.82±11.69) and controls(50.62±10.81) p=0.007,significant Student T test. Stage II hypertensive with mean ±SD (42.86±24.87) and p value 0.003 showed positive correlation to ACR. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in this study. Student t test (two tailed, independent) has been used to find the significance of study parameters on continuous scale between two groups (inter group analysis) on metric parameters