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International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, ISSN 2277-2812 E-ISSN: 2249-8109
Volume 16, Issue 2, Sept 2015 pp 358-362
Dengue fever in a tertiary care hospital
Tiple Nishikant1, Pawara Kisan2, More S S3
1Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Shri.Vasantrao Naik, Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, INDIA.
2Medical Officer, Civil hospital, Nandurbar, Maharashtra, INDIA.
3Professor and Dean, Government Meidical College and Hospital, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, INDIA.
Introduction: Dengue fever is one of the most important emerging diseases of tropical and subtropical regions, affecting urban and peri-urban areas. It is caused by an arbovirus which is transmitted by the bite of an insect vector Aedes aegypti mosquito1,2. It is estimated that in world each year 50 million cases of dengue infection occur with 5, 00,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and at least 12,000 deaths, mainly among children3. Hence this study is planned to find out clinical profile of dengue fever in children. Aims and Objectives: To find out demographic features, clinical manifestations, laboratory profile and outcome of dengue fever in childrens. Material and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in pediatrics department of tertiary care centre from Jan 2012 to June 2013. The study group includes childrens attending the pediatrics OPD and IPD with following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion Criteria: 1: Patients attending OPD already diagnosed as case of dengue by NS1 antigen test or dengue IgM/ IgG test and got admitted in pediatrics wards. 2: Patients diagnosed as a case of dengue fever after admission in pediatrics wards in our institution. 3: Age group of 3 months to 12 years. Exclusion Criteria: 1: Children attending outpatient department only. 2: Age group < 3years and >12 years. Observation and Results: The present study was carried out at tertiary care center in department of pediatrics from January 2012 to June 2013. The study group includes 100 cases that were diagnosed as a case of dengue fever by NS1 antigen test or dengue IgM or IgG test during study period. In present study distribution of cases with male to female ratio was 1:1. Most of the cases were found in month of August to November, contributes to 90% of cases. Majority of cases were from rural area (62%) as compared to urban area (38%). In the present study 38% of patients were positive for dengue NS1 antigen test, 64% of patients were positive for IgM antibody test and 27% of patients were positive for IgG antibody test. In the present study fever (100%) was predominant symptoms followed by abdominal pain (48%), headache (42%), Rash (39%), Body ache (36%), Cough (36%), Bleeding (33%), Vomiting (26%) breathlessness (12%), retro-orbital pain (10%), altered sensorium (6%), convulsion (6%) and loose motion (4%). In our study malena is a most common bleeding manifestation (15%) case followed by skin bleeding (6%) cases, multiple bleeding sites (5%) cases, hematemesis (2%), gum bleeding (2%), hematuria (2%) and epistaxis in 1% of cases. In present study 1% cases have platelet count <10000 , 3% have between 10001-20000, 24% case have between 20001-50000, 51% have between 50001-100000 and 21% cases have platelet count between 1000001-150000. Out of 100 cases studied 50% cases were classified as classical dengue fever, 33% cases as DHF and 17% cases as DSS. Out of 100 children, 96% cases recovered completely, where as 4% of cases who presented in late stages succumbed. Conclusion: In present study the highest number of cases was found in age group of 6 - 12 years with equal sex distribution and the maximum number of cases was found in between months of Aug to Nov. Dengue fever was most common presentation followed by DHF and DSS which are major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hence early diagnosis and treatment can decrease both morbidity and mortality in dengue patient. It is also important for both preventive measures and laboratory preparedness during dengue season which will improve outcome in terms of both morbidity and mortality.