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International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, ISSN 2277-2812 E-ISSN: 2249-8109
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2013 pp 67-72
A Comparative Study of the Acute Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Cardiovascular System in Smokers to the Non-Smoking Individuals
Mohd. Rasheeduddin Imran1*, P. Sambasiva Rao2
1,2Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru-534004, West Godavari Dist, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
Academic Editor : Dr. Aher K.R.
Background: Smoking is a serious global public health hazard and has already emerged as a major cause of death due to heart diseases. It is not recognized because of inadequate programmes to deal with it. Aims: The study has been conducted to evaluate and explain the acute cardiovascular effects of tobacco smoking in the habitual smokers and the benefits of quitting the habit of smoking to avoid the complications. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in human lab of physiology department on 100 healthy male smokers and 50 healthy male non-smoker subjects in the age range of 21 to 40 years. Based on duration of exposure to cigarette smoking the smokers were again classified as short term smokers and long term smokers. The smokers were compared with non-smokers. Methods and Material: The smokers were given standard cigarette to smoke while the non-smokers did sham smoking using a cool drink straw. The variables were recorded at rest and immediately after smoking. Blood Pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer, heart rate was measured using ECG and Stroke volume and Cardiac Output were derived using Echocardiography. All the values were recorded and comparison tables were derived after statistical analysis using SPSS statistical software and the results were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that there is a significant hemodynamic change including an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume and cardiac output in both long term and short term smokers immediately after cigarette smoking compared to the non-smoking group after sham smoking. The study concludes that the acute effects can lead to acute cardiovascular events which are more important risk than long-term effects of tobacco smoking and especially in heavy smokers who are always in a state of constant abnormal hemodynamic state.