Message From Editor-In-Chief
Volume 11 Issue 4 Of International Journal Of Recent Trends In Science And Technology (IJRTSAT) Challenges In The Field Of General, Applied and Recent Sciences with The Advanced Technologies Aimed At Providing An International Forum For Scientists, Researchers, Doctors, Engineers And Developers From A Wide Range Of Science Areas, To Exchange Ideas And Approaches In This Evolving Field. While Presenting Research Findings And State-Of-Art Solutions, Authors Were Especially Invited To Share Experiences On New Research Challenges, High Quality Papers In All Sciences And Technological Areas Were Solicited And Original Papers Exploring Research Challenges Did Receive Especially Careful Interest from Reviewers. Papers That Had Already Been Accepted Are Considered For Publications At October to December 2021. 69 Papers Were Submitted And 13 Were Accepted. This Volume 11 Issue 4 Of The International Journal Of Recent Trends In Science And Technology, Dedicated to All The Researchers And Well Wishers Of IJRTSAT.
Ashok Kumar Saini
Background: In this paper we have taken failure due to unexpected large disturbance at the second stage separation resulting in a sub-orbital flight of the vehicle and failure due to Developmental Flight, payload placed into lower than planned orbit, and did not have sufficient fuel to reach a usable orbit. When the main unit fails then cold standby system becomes operative. Failure payload placed into lower than planned orbit, and did not have sufficient fuel to reach a usable orbit cannot occur simultaneously in both the units and after failure the unit undergoes Type-I or Type-II or Type-III repair facility immediately. Applying the regenerative point technique with renewal process theory the various reliability parameters MTSF, Availability, Busy period, Benefit-Function analysis have been evaluated.
1. Dhillon, B.S. and Natesen, J, Stochastic Anaysis of outdoor Power Systems in fluctuating environment, Microelectron. Reliab. ,1983; 23, 867-881. 2. Kan, Cheng, Reliability analysis of a system in a randomly changing environment, Acta Math. Appl. Sin. 1985, 2, pp.219-228. 3. Cao, Jinhua, Stochatic Behaviour of a Man Machine System operating under changing environment subject to a Markov Process with two states, Microelectron. Reliab. ,1989; 28, pp. 373-378. 4. Barlow, R.E. and Proschan, F., Mathematical theory of Reliability, 1965; John Wiley, New York. 5. Gnedanke, B.V., Belyayar, Yu.K. and Soloyer , A.D. , Mathematical Methods of Relability Theory, 1969 ; Academic Press, New York.
Manaswini Khuntia, Ritanjali Behera
Introduction: Puberty menorrhagia is a real trouble among adolescent girls mostly due to problem in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Aims and objectives: To understand the various causative factors in puberty menorrhagia and to evaluate the role of hormones estrogens, progesterones or combination of both in controlling the excessive menstrual bleeding. Materials and methods: It is a study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at MKCG medical college, Berhampur, Odisha from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. Study included a total of 112 adolescent girls presenting with complains of menorrhagia. Assessment of each case with thorough history, physical examination and laboratory investigations was done. Results: About 78.2% patients had menorrhagia due to immaturity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, 7.1% patients had bleeding diathesis, 5.3% had polycystic ovarian disease and 5.3% had hypothyroidism. Other rare causes were genital TB (1.8%), Leukemia (0.9%), polyp (0.9%). 3(2.6%) patients needed surgical intervention in the form of DandC and polypectomy. Hormonal management were given in 104(92.9%) and only non-hormonal management were given in 8(7.1%) of cases. Conclusion: Most abnormal bleeding in adolescent is caused by immaturity of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis resulting in anovulation. Majority of the patients showed good response to combined oral contraceptive pills.
1. Rao S, Pawar V, Badhwar VR, Fonseca MN. Medical intervention in puberty menorrhagia. Bombay Hospital Journal 2004;46(2) Full Text Available at http://www.bhj.org/journal/2004_4602_april/html/medical_interventions_121.htm 2. Krishna UR, Salvi V. Adolescent and paediatric gynaecological problems. In Ratnam SS, Rao KB, Arulkumaran S. Eds. Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Postgraduates. 1999. Orient Longman, Madras. PP287-307. 3. WHO Adolsence, the critical phase, Regional Office for south East Asia, New Delhi; 1997 4. Padhy S, Kartic, Padhy SB, A profile of menstrual disorders in a private set up, KathamanduUniv, Med J (KUMJ), 2003 Jan-Mar;1(1):20-6 5. Shaw’s Text Book of Gynaecology; Howkins and Bourne; 13th Edition;V.G. Padubidri and Shirish N. Daftary. 6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE J. Med. Sci. (Peshawar, Print) January 2012, Vol.20, No. 1: 15-18 PUBERTY MENORRHAGIA: CAUSES AND MANAGEMENT SaimaGillani, Syed Mohammad 7. Rawat CM et al. Prevalence of anemia among adolescents girls in rural area of district Meerut, UP, Indian Public Health 2001; 45(1) :24-26 8. F.AnneClaessens, M.B.B.S., F.R.C.S.(E)3 and Carol A.Cowell, M.D., F.R.C.S. (C): Dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the adolescent. Pediatric Clinics of North America – vol. 28, No.2, May 1981 pg. 369-378 9. OJHAS Vol 7 Issue 1(5) Roychowdhury J et al. A Study To Evaluate The Aetiological Factors And Management of Puberty Menorrhagia 10. Joshi S, Chella H, Shrivastava D. Study of Puberty Menorhagia in Adolescent Girl in a Rural set-up. J South Asian FederObstGynae 2012; 4(2):110-112.
Subalakshmi Balasubramanian, S Rajendiran, J Thanka
Introduction: Critical values (CVs)in clinical pathology is a well known entity that necessitates immediate notification of the physician to initiate rapid and prompt treatment. This concept has gained significance in cytopathology recently. Aim: 1. To evaluate the CVs in cytology reports from January 2011 to June 2013 and its utility in the health care delivery. 2. Perceptions of clinicians about the utility of Critical Values in cytology. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the documented cases of CVs among 23000 cytopathology reports. Cases considered CVs included bacteria and fungi in fluid cytology, Pneumocystis fungi or Cytopathic changes in Pulmonary cytology specimens, Unexpected malignant cells in cytology and Polymorphs in Synovial fluid. A survey was conducted among clinicians to rate the usefulness of critical alert values on a scale of 1 to 4 as follows 1. No need of phone call. 2. A phone call should be done but no change in treatment. 3. Stat phone call needed not sure if change in treatment. 4. Stat phone call needed for prompt treatment. Another survey was also conducted on the mode of communication of critical alerts and most of the clinicians favoured a need of stat phone call to their cellular phones rather than land line phone. Results: We identified 58 CVs documented in our cytology specimens of 23000 during the study period. Among these 78.3% were Non-Gynecology specimens. Most common CV was AFB positive smears (n=26) 44.8%. The next common was unexpected malignancies 23cases (39.6%) .6 cases (15.7%) were polymorphs in synovial fluid. CSF showed polymorphs in 3 case (5.2%).Among the gynaecology specimens no Herpes in Pap smears of near term pregnancies were identified. Survey among clinicians were done most of them voted for a immediate phone call for prompt treatment and the best mode of communication preferred was call to the mobile phones. Conclusion: Though the overall number of CVs in cytopathology is low but we feel that practise of CVs in cytology is very important in preventing the undesired delay in patient management.
1. Pereira TC1, Clayton AC, Tazelaar HD, Liu Y, Leon M, Silverman JF.Critical values in cytology. 2006 Jun; 34(6):447-51. 2. Silverman, J. F. and T. C. Pereira. Critical values in anatomic pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006.130:638–640. 3. Telma C. Pereira, Yulin Liu, MD, PhD and Jan F.Silverman, MD. Critical values in Surgical Pathology. Am J ClinPathol 2004;122:201-205 4. LiVolsi VA, Leung S. Communicating critical values in anatomic pathology.ArchPathol Lab Med. 2006; 130:641–644. 5. Wagar EA, Stankovic AK, Wilkinson DS, et al. Assessment monitoring of laboratory critical values: a College of American Pathologists Q-Tracks study of 180 institutions. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007; 131:44–49. 6. Elizabeth A Wagar, Ana K. Stankovic et al Assessment Monitoring of Laboratory Critical Values: A college of American Pathologists Q-Tracks Stusy of 180 institutions. Arch Pathol Lab med – Vol 131 January 2007.;44-49 7. Huang EC, Kuo FC, Fletcher CD, et al. Critical diagnoses in surgical pathology: a retrospective single-institution study to monitor guidelines for communication of urgent results. Am J SurgPathol. 2009; 33:1098–1102.
Introduction: Hip fractures are a leading cause of death and disability among the elderly. Treatment goals for this patient include early rehabilitation, restoration of the anatomic alignment of the proximal part of the femur and maintenance of the fracture reduction. Various treatment modalities have been explained by various authors. But the treatment of choice in high surgical risk elderly patients is not clear. Aims and objectives: To study the efficacy of external fixation in a group of high surgical risk elderly patients. Materials and methods: 20 cases of intertrochantric fracture of femur with ASA grade more than 2 were studied. First the fracture reduction was achieved using standard procedure. The reduction was confirmed in two planes that is, anteroposterior and lateral view on x-ray or c-arm. Schanz screws and connecting AO clamps were used as external fixators. The surgical time blood loss was recorded. Average hospital stay and post operative complications were recorded. Results: Majority of the patients were in grade III and IV of Tronzo fracture grading. According to the ASA grading majority (55%) of the patients were in ASA III grade. Superficial infection was the most common complication. In 7 cases malunion was observed. One case was reported as delayed union for which continuation of the fixator was needed for 14 weeks. There was no case of nonunion. The neck shaft angle in 13 patients was excellent (between 125 to 135 degrees). In two patients it was fair (between 110 and 125 degrees). In one patients it was poor (<110 degrees). The final outcome was not measured in 4 cases because they lost to follow-up. Two patients died in the curse of treatment. The cause was unrelated to the fracture fixation. Conclusions: External fixation can be used as method of choice in high-risk geriatric patients with interochanteric fractures.
1. Christodoulou NA, sdrenias CV. External fixation of select intertrochanteric fracturs with singlle hip screw. Clin orthop. 2000;381:204-11 2. Larsson S. treatment of osteoporotic fracturs. Scand J surg.2002;91:140-6. 3. Baumgaertner MR. the pertrochanteric external fixator reduced pain, hospital stay, and mechanical complication in comparison with the sliding hip screw, J Bone joint surg Am.2002: 84:1488. 4. Bridle SH, patel AD, bircher M, calvert PT. fixation of intertrochanteric fractures of femur. A randomised prospective comparsion of the gamma nail and the dynamic hip screw, J Bone joint surg Br. 1991;73:330-4. 5. Hardy DC, descamps PY, Krallis P, Fabeck L. smets P. bertens GL, delince PE. Use of an intramedullary hip-screw compared with a fractures. A prospective, randomized study of one hundred patients. J Bone joint surg Am. 1998;80:618-30. 6. Perren SM, allgoewer M, schneider R. Maurice E. Manual of internal fixation; techniques recommended by the AO-ASIF Group. New your; springer; 2001. 7. Jensen JS, tondevold E, mossing N. unstable trochanteric fractures treated with the sliding screw-plate system. A biomechanical study of unstable trochanteric fractures. III. Acta orthops scand. 1978;49:392-7. 8. Sala milenkovic, milorad mitkovic, Mile radenkovic, Gesinir mladenovic zoran golubovic, milos stanjovic; surgical treatment of the trochanteric fractures by using the external and internal fixation methods. 9. Scott IH. Treatment of intertrochanteric fractures by skeletal pinning and external fixation. Clin orthop. 1957;10:326-34. 10. Christodoulou NA, Sdrenias CV. External fixation of select intertrochanteric fractures with single hip screw. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000; 381:204–211. 11. Tomak Y, Kacaoglu M, Piskin A et al. Treatment of intertrochanteric fractures in geriatric patients with a modified external fixator. Injury. 2005; 36:635–643. 12. Vossinakis IC, Badras LS. Management of pertrochanteric fractures in high-risk patients with an external fixation. Int Orthop. 2001; 25:219–222 13. Vossinakis IC, Badras LS. The external fixator compared with the sliding hip screw for pertrochanteric fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg. 2002; 84–B:23–29 14. Dahl A, Varghese M, Bhasin VB. External fixation of intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg. 1991; 73– B:955–958 15. Navin Kumar Karn, Giris Kumar Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Mahi Pal Singh, Bikram Prasad Shrestha, Pashupati Chaudhary. Management of trochanteric fractures of the femur with external fixation in high-risk patients. International Orthopaedics.2009; 33:785–788
Bhagwan K Bongane, Prashant G Gavali
Background: The composite materials of ST and BT ceramics were prepared by using solid state reaction method. The dielectric parameters of ST and BT ceramics of particle size 125 micron like dielectric constant (ε'), loss (ε"), quality factor (QxF), relaxation time (τ) and conductivity (σ) has been studied at different temperatures i.e. -10oc, +10oc, +30oc and +50oc. the values of dielectric parameters are found greeter of ST then BT but the relaxation time of ST is found smaller than BT.
1. Pice Chen et. al., Fiel-Dependant Domain Distorn and Interlayer Polarization Distribution in SrTiO2 Superlattices, Physical Review Letters, 110:047601, (2013). 2. J. B. Neaton and K. M. Rabe, Theory of Polarization Enhancement in Epitaxial SrTiO3 Superlattices, Applied Physics Letters, 82:1586, (2003). 3. P. G. Gawali, et.al, Indian journal of pulses research, vol. 18(2), 192-195,(2005). 4. P. G. Gawali, B.K. Bongane, et.al., “Dielectric behavior of some pulses using reflectometric technique at 9.85 GHz”, Indian journal of applied Research, Volume : 3, (2013). 5. Junwoo Son, et.al., Exitaxial SrTiO3 Tunnel Barriers on Pt/MgO Substances, Applied Physics Express, 1:061603, (2008). 6. Almudena Torres-Pardo, et.al., Stereoscopic Mapping of Local Structural Distortions in Ferrolectric PbTiO3 Superlattices at the unit-cell scale, Physical Review B., 84:220102, (2011). 7. Marcos Verissimo-Alves, et.al., Highly Confined Spin-Polarized Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in SrTiO3 Superlattices, Physical Review Letter, 108:107003, (2012). 8. M. Ziese, I. Vrejoiu, and D. Hesse, Structual Symmetry and Magnetocrystalline Anistory films of SrTiO3, Physical Review B, 81:184418, (2010). 9. I. Rychetsky, O. Hudak and J. Petzelt, Dielectric Properties of Microcomposite ferroelectrics, Phy. Rep., Vol. 236, No. 1, P223-234, (2000). 10. P. G. Gawali and B.K Bongane, Microwave dielectric properties of (Bao.5Pbo.5)TiO3 with wave various temperature and particle sizes, Bio-nano Frontier (Communicated). 11. B. K. Bongane and P. G. Gawali, “Effect of particle size and temperature on dielectric parameters of PLZT ceramics at 9.85 GHz”, International Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences.
B Selvaraj, K Senthil Kumaran, G P Sekar
Foreign body ingestion into gastrointestinal tract is a common problem in pediatric age group and in mentally retarded adults. In this article we have presented three patients from three age groups depicting the entire spectrum of the problem. Majority of these foreign bodies will be excreted without any problem but some sharp objects and impacted ones need emergency removal by endoscopy. We have also reviewed the literature for guidelines to manage this problem.
1. WebbWA. Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointest- inal tract: update. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;41:39–50. 2. Schwartz GF, PolskyHS. Ingested foreign bodies of the gastrointest- inal tract. Am Surg 1976; 42:236–238. 3. SinghBh, Kantu M, Har-El G, Lucente FE. Complications associated with 327 foreign bodies of the pharynx, larynx and esophagus. Ann OtolRhinolLaryngol 1997; 106:301–304. 4. NandiP,OngGB.Foreign body in the esophagus: review of 2394 cases. Br J Surg 1978; 65:5–9. 5. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, et al. Grade: an emerging consensus onrating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008; 336:924-6.6. Carp L. Foreign bodies in the intestine. Ann Surg 1927; 85:575-91. 6. Pellerin D, Fortier-Beaulieu M, Gueguen J. The fate of swallowed foreignbodies experience of 1250 instances of sub-diaphragmatic foreign bodiesin children. ProgrPediatrRadiol 1969; 2:286-302. 7. PaltaR,SahotaA,Bemarki A, et al.Foreign-body ingestion: characteristicsand outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantlyintentional ingestion. GastrointestEndosc 2009;69:426-33. 8. WeilandST,SchurrMJ.Conservative management of ingested foreignbodies.JGastrointestSurg 2002;6:496-500. 9. Simic MA, Budakov BM. Fatal upper esophageal hemorrhage caused bya previously ingested chicken bone: case report. Am J Forensic MedPathol998; 19:166-8. 10. WebbWA. Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinaltract: update. GastrointestEndosc 1995; 41:39-51. 11. Hachimi-IdrissiS,ComeL, VandenpiasY. Management of ingested foreign bodies in childhood: our experience and review of the literature.Eur J Emerg Med 1998;5:319-23. 12. Kamal I, Thompson J, Paquette OM. The hazards of vinyl glove ingestionin the mentally retarded patient with pica: new implications for surgicalmanagement. Can J Surg 1999; 42:201-4. 13. Vizcarrondo FJ, Brady PG, Nord HJ. Foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinaltract. GastrointestEndosc 1983; 29:208-10. 14. Ginsberg GG. Management of ingested foreign objects and food bolusimpactions. GastrointestEndosc 1995; 41:33-8. 15. Selivanov V, Sheldon CF, Cello JP, et al. Management of foreign bodyingestion. Ann Surg 1984; 199:187-91. 16. Newell KJ, Taylor B, Walton JC, et al. Plastic bread- bag clips in the gastrointestinaltract: report of 5 cases and review of the literature. CMAJ 2000:162:527-9. 17. Yamada T, Sato H, Seki M, et al. Successful salvage of aortoesophagealfistula caused by a fish bone. Ann ThoracSurg 1996; 61:1843-5. 18. Chan FK, Sung JJ, Tam PY, et al. “Blister pack”-induced gastrointestinalhemorrhage. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 92:172-3. 19. Chowdhury CR, Bricknell MC, MacIver D. Oesophageal foreign body: anunusual cause of respiratory symptoms in a three-week-old baby. JLaryngolOtol 1992; 106:556-7. 20. Cranston PE, Pollack CV Jr, Harrison RB. CT of crack cocaine ingestion. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1992; 16:560-3. 21. Eng JGH, Aks SE, Marcus C, et al. False-negative abdominal CT scan in acocaine body stuffer. Am J Emerg Med 1999; 17:702-4. 22. Takada M, Kashiwagi R, Sakane M, et al. 3D-CT diagnosis for ingestedforeign bodies. Am J Emerg Med 2000; 18:192-3. 23. Faigel DO, Stotland BR, Kochman ML, et al. Device choice and experience level in endoscopic foreign object retrieval: an in vivo study. GastrointestEndosc 1997; 45:490-2. 24. Nelson DB, Bosco JJ, Curtis W, et al. Endoscopic retrieval devices. GastrointestEndosc 1999; 50:932-4. 25. Smith MT, Wong RK. Foreign bodies. GastrointestEndoscClin N Am2007; 17:361-82. 26. Nijhawan S, Rastogi M, Tandon M, et al. Magnetic loop basket: a ”twoin-one” instrument. Endoscopy 2006; 38:723-5. 27. Saeed ZA, Michaletz PA, Feiner SD, et al. A new endoscopic method formanaging food impactions. Endoscopy 1990; 22:226-8. 28. Pezzi JS, Shiau YF. A method for removing meat impactions from theesophagus. GastrointestEndosc 1994; 40:634-6.
B Selvaraj, K Senthil Kumaran, G P Sekar
Early lung cancer can masquerade as pulmonary TB especially an endemic area like India. Many early lung cancers have been treated wrongly as pulmonary TB because the clinical and the radiological features for both conditions are similar. We present 2 cases of early lung cancer who were treated wrongly as pulmonary TB. In the first patient we did ultrasound guided Trans Thoracic Needle aspiration(TTNA) and in the second patient we did CT of upper abdomen which revealed the metastasis in Rt adrenal gland. We also review the literature.
1. Rivera MP1, Mehta AC, Wahidi MM. Establishing the diagnosis of lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013 May; 143(5 Suppl):e142S-65S. 2. Wang Memoli JS1, Nietert PJ, Silvestri GA. Meta-analysis of guided bronchoscopy for the evaluation of the pulmonary nodule.Chest. 2012 Aug; 142(2):385-93. 3. Kusunoki Y, Imamaura F, Udo H, Mano M, Horai T. Early detection of lung cancer with laser induced fluorescence endoscopy and spectrofluoremetry. Chest 2000; 118: 1776-82. 4. Herth F, Becker HD, Ernst A. Conventional vs endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a randomized trial. Chest 2004; 125: 322-5. 5. Miyazu Y, Miyazawa T, Iwamoto Y, Kano K, Kurimoto N. The role of endoscopic techniques, laser-induced fluorescent endoscopy and endobronchial ultrasonography in choice of appropriate therapy for bronchial cancer. J Bronchol 2000; 8: 10-6 6. Kennedy TC, Lam S, Hirsch FR. Review of recent advances in fluorescence bronchoscopy in early localisation of central airway lung cancer. Oncologist 2001; 6: 257-62 7. Shibuya K, Hoshino H, Chiyo M, Iyoda A, Yoshida S, Sekine Y, et al. High magnification bronchovideoscopy combined with narrow band imaging could detect capillary loops of angiogenic squamous dysplasia in heavy smokers at high risk for lung cancer. Thorax 2003; 58: 989-95. 8. MLB Bhatt, Surya Kant, and Ravi Bhaskar.Pulmonary tuberculosis as differential diagnosis of lung cancer. South Asian J Cancer. 2012 Jul-Sep; 1(1): 36–42. 9. Robbins and cotran pathologic basis of disease, Ninth Edition ISBN: 978-1-4557-2613-4 International edition ISBN: 978-0-8089-2450-0.
D M Ambekar
Introduction: ENT disorders are common in the school going age. Sometimes these disorders can remain undetected and affect the academic as well as overall personality development of the child. The objective of this study was to determine the percentage of different types of hearing disorders in school going children by simple clinical and audiological assessment. Materials and Methods: In the present study school children within age group of 6-15 years were included. About 289 children of both sexes were selected randomly from the school located in Nerul, Navi Mumbai. Children were examined in detail by an otorhinolaryngologist. Results: In the present study sample (n=289) the otological disorders were observed in132 (45.67%) children. Wax was the commonest hearing disorder (93.18%) seen. Otitis media with effusion was found to be the second commonest disorder (3.03%).Less common disorders were Chronic suppurative otitis media (1.51%) followed by otomycosis(0.75%),foreign body in the ear(0.75%) and acute suppurative otitis media (0.75%). Conclusion: Regular health checkups by otorhinolaryngologists and increasing awareness in parents and teachers can help in early diagnosis of ear disorders in children. Early diagnosis will help in their effective treatment and rehabilitation. Simple ENT examination and audiological assessment when and where required can help in improving prognosis of most of the preventable hearing disorders in children.
1. Naeimeh Daneshmandan, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh, Robab Teymouri. The Prevalence of Ear Disease in Sensorineural Hearing Impaired Children Below 18 Years-Old in Deaf Welfare Clinic of Molavi Rehabilitation Center. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 11, no.14, December 2011, pg60-62 2. R Nepali, B Sigdel. Prevalence of ENT Diseases in Children: Hospital Based Study. The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2012 Volume 14 Number 2 3. Prakash Adhikari, Dr. Binit Kharel, Jasmine Ma.Pattern of otological diseases in school going children of Kathmandu valley. International archives of otorhinolaryngology.2008 Nov; vol 12, no.4, pg502-505 4. Aqeel Absalan, Ibrahim Pirasteh, Gholam Ali Dashti Khavidaki, Azam Asemi rad, Ali Akbar Nasr Esfahani, and Mohammad Hussein Nilforoush .A Prevalence Study of Hearing Loss among Primary School Children in the South East of Iran. International journal of otolaryngology, vol 2013, pg1-4 5. Janaina Candida Rodrigues Nogueira; Maria da Conceição Mendonça. Assessment of hearing in a municipal public school student population.Braz. j. otorhinolaryngology.2011 Nov; vol 77, no.6, pg716-20 6. Tahir Hussain, Abdullah A. Alghasham, and Muhammad Raza. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in School Children.2011 July; 5(2 Suppl 1): 46–48. 7. Saud Lateef Chishty Sajad Hamid Esbah-i-lateef Mohd Lateef Chishty Asef Wani.otolaryngology online journal, A prospective study of hearing impairment in school going children of Ghaziabad city attending a tertiary care hospital Volume 4 Issue 4 2014 8. Bijan Basak, Gautam Dhar, G.C. Gayen.Pattern of aural morbidity among children in a rural tertiary care hospital.IOSR Journal of pharmacy, Aug2013, issue7, vol3, p58-62s 9. Sanjay Kishve, Nishant Kumar, Prajakta Kishve. Ear, Nose and Throat disorders in pediatric patients at a rural hospital in India. Australasian Medical Journal AMJ2010, 3, 12,786-790 10. G.Yamamah, A. Mabrouk, E.Ghorab, M.Ahmady and H. Abdulsalam. Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7–10 years in South Sinai, Egypt, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 2012, 18(3): 255-260
V A Chaudhari, P Girgaon, P Sutar, P D Rupanwar, T H Mujawar
Background: There is an extensive convention of numerous products in our daily life and built-up of this products are completed in various big scale and petite scale industries. Arranging causes class uniformity problem. Currently the major intricacy explicitly faced subsequent to the manufacture is of categorization. Arranging of objects in an industry is a tedious contemporary procedure, which is done actually. Consistent physical necessitate of this variety of machine in the industries will assist in arrangement the machine according to their load, bulk, color, shape, etc. This paper gives succinct information regarding the categorization of objects according to their color using TCS3200 sensor, Arduino UNO and servo motors. The recognition of color is made by frequency scaling of color detection.
1. Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L. and Zorzi, M., 2014. Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things journal, 1(1), pp.22- 32. 2. J.U. Rakshe, S. S. Savali, R.B. Badiwale, T.H. Mujawar, “Smart Car Parking System using IOT: An approach for Solapur University campus”, e-Proceeding - ICRAPCS-2020, ISBN - 978-93-5396-893-9, pp.135-138 3. https://howtomechatronics.com/tutorials/arduino/arduino-color-sensing-tutorial-tcs230-tcs3200-color-sensor/ 4. https://www.google.com/search?q=tft+display+pinoutandhl=en-INandauthuser=0andrlz=1C1CHWA_enIN634IN634andsource=lnmsandtbm=ischandsa=Xandved=0ahUKEwi58OXXq8DhAhVn8HMBHUGmA 5. https://www.arduino.cc/en/Guide/TFT
R Patel et al.
Background: Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of public health significance. It has become endemic in India with outbreaks occurring almost every year. Aim and Objectives: To analyze the epidemiological pattern of dengue disease along with clinical study and to compare the result of the dengue rapid diagnostic test with standard ELISA test. Materials and Methods: The laboratory records of dengue positive cases of year 2013were analyzed retrospectively for epidemiological data & dengue diagnostic tests. Results: The study shows predominant younger age group involvement with male predominance. Among the positive dengue rapid diagnostic tests, only 80% tests were positive when compared to standard ELISA tests. Conclusions: The epidemiology pattern of dengue is changing in some areas with predominant younger age group involvement. Though rapid diagnostic tests shows false positive results sometimes, it can offer early detection of outbreak.
1. Atul Garg, Jaya Garg, Y. K. Rao, G. C. Upadhyay and Suman Sakhuja: Prevalence of dengue among clinically suspected febrile episodes at a teaching hospital in North India:Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity 2011 May ,Vol.3(5), 85-89. 2. Ashwini Kumar, Chythra R Rao, Vinay Pandit, Seema Shetty, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, and Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe: Clinical Manifestations and Trend of Dengue Cases Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Udupi District, Karnataka:Indian J Community Med. Jul 2010; 35(3): 386–390. 3. Ekta Gupta, Lalit Dar, Priyanka Narang,V.K. Srivastava & Shobha Broor: Serodiagnosis of dengue during an outbreak at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.Indian J Med Res 121, January 2005,36-38. 4. Yew YW, Ye T, Ang LW, Ng LC, Yap G, James L, et al. Sero-epidemiology of dengue virus infection among adults in Singapore. Ann Acad Med 2009;38:667-75. 5. Guilarde AO1, Turchi MD, Siqueira JB Jr, Feres VC, Rocha B, Levi JE, et al. Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever among adults. Clinical outcomes related to Viremia, Serotypes and Antibody response. J Infect Dis 2008;197:817-24. 6. Dhar S, Malakar R, Ghosh A, Kundu R, Mukhopadhyay M, Banerjee R. The recent epidemic of Dengue fever in W Bengal: Clinic serological pattern. Indian J Dermatol 2006; 51:57-59. 7. Anker M, Arima Y. Male female difference in the number of reported incident dengue fever cases in Six Asian countries. Western Pac Surveill Response J 2011;2:17-23. 8. Dengue in Kerala: A critical review. ICMR Bulletin. 2006;36:13–22. 9. TDR/WHO. Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests. Diagnostics Evaluation Series No.3 online (TDR/WHO, Geneva. Switzerland, 2009). 10. KN Tewari, NR Tuli, SC Devgun. Clinical profile of dengue fever and use of platelets in four tertiary level hospitals of Delhi in the year 2009. JIACM 2013; 14(1): 8-12. 11. Riffat Mehboob, Muhammad Munir,Ahmed Azeem,Samina Naeem, Muhammad Akram Tariq and Fridoon Jawad Ahmad. Low platelet count associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever: International Journal of Advances in Chemistry (IJAC) . November 2013.Vol.1, No.1. 12. Ooi EE, Goh KT, Gubler DJ. Dengue prevention and 35 year of vector control in Singapore. Emerg infect Dis. 2006; 12: 887-93. 13. A Abrol, A Dewan, N Agarwal, A Galhotra, N Goel, H Swami:A Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Dengue Fever Cases in a Peri-Urban Area of Chandigarh:The Internet Journal of Epidemiology.Volume 5,No.1 14. Dengue: Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention & control. New edition,2009,World Health Organization.