T. Mahami, F.C.K. Ocloo, S.T. Odonkor, C. Owulah, S. A. Coffie
Abstract: Variability of quality of product makes cottage cheese production unattractive to urban populations. Meanwhile demand for value-added dairy products is on the increase in the urban areas. This study investigated the effect of moringa seed extract (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) supplementation on the yield and quality of cottage cheese prepared from fresh cow milk coagulated with latex from Callotropis procera. Yield, milk coagulation time, pH, moisture content, percentage protein, percentage fat, phosphorous and ash content of cottage cheese were determined. The pH of cottage cheese increased with increase in moringa seed extract. The control sample gave a pH of 6.52, whiles 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentrations of moringa seed extract gave pH values of 6.54, 6.55, 6.56 and 6.62 respectively and their difference were significant (p<0.05). Yield of cottage cheese also increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in concentration of moringa seed extract. The 500mls of milk yielded 18.19% cheese in the case of the control whereas 0.5% moringa seed extract yielded 19.75%. Also, 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentrations of moringa seed extract gave outputs of 22.55%, 23.66% and 24.42% cheese respectively. Protein content of cheese increased from 14.50± 0.00% to 14.96 ± 0.00% when 0.5% moringa seed extract was added, to 16.01 ± 0.00% after the addition of 1% moringa seed extract, to 18.31 ± 0.00% when 1.5% moringa seed extract was added and to 18.50± 0.00 following an addition of 2.0% moringa seed extract. The differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). This study also revealed that phosphorous content, ash content and fat of cheese all increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in moringa seed extract concentration. Effect of moringa seed extract on moisture content was however not clear. Moringa seed extract enrichment resulted in significant increases in the yield, protein content and mineral content of cottage cheese and therefore has the potential to be used in improving the yield and quality of cottage cheese
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Universite Nationale du Benin. Department de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaire. AbomeyCalavi / Benin pp. 29, 1994.  Otani H, Hosono A, Higashiyama S, Tokita F. Some properties of the milk-clotting enzyme purified from 'Iitsusu' tree (Wrightiana calysina) as a proteo-Iylic enzyme. Milchwissenschaft (39), 156-158, 1984.  Aworh OC, Muller HG. Cheese-making properties of vegetable rennet from Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Food Chem, (26): 71-79, 1987.  O'Connor CB. Calotropis procere extract as a milk coagulant agent. 2:Jd Int. Dai/)' Congr A 20. October 7-12, Montreal, 1990.  Heimgartner U, Pietrzak M, Geertsen R, Brodelius P, Figueiredo ACS, Pais MSS. Purification and partial characterization of milk clotting proteases from flowers of Cynara cardunculus. Phytochemist, (29),1405-1410, 1990.  Griffin M. Value Added Dairy Products: An international perspective, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Advanced Research Workshop on Economics of the Dairy Industry in Central and Eastern Europe 5-7 June Rydzyna, Poland, 2000.  Lipipun V, Kurokawa M, Suttisri R, Taweechotipatr P, Pramyothin P, Hattori M, & Shiraki K. Efficacy of Thai medicinal plant extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antivir Res. 2003 Nov; 6 (3):175-80, 2003.  Ashok K & Pari L. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats. J Med Food. Fall; 6 (3):255-259, 2003.  Kar A, Choundhary B. & Bandyopadhyay N. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 84 (1):105-8, 2003.  Rao A, Devi P & Kamath R. In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves. Indian J Exp Biol. 39 (9):858-63, 2001.  Tahiliani P, & Kar A. Role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status in adult male and female rats. Pharmacol Res. ; 41(3):319-323, 2000.  Ghasi S, Nwobodo E, & Ofili J. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. In high-fat diet fed wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 69 (1):21-25, 2000.  Jed W, Fahey Sc. D. Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1. Trees for Life Journal 1:5, 2005.  Foidl N, Makkar HPS and Becker K. The potential of moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses What development potential for Moringa products? October 20th - November 2nd, Dar Es Salaam, 2001.  Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis,15th Edn. Arlington, VA. pp. 840-850. 1990.  Metwalli NH, Shalabi SI, Zahran, AS and EIDemenlash O. The use of soybean in soft cheese making. Journal of Food Technology. 17: 297305, 1982.  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A. N. Korpenwar
Abstract: Plants are used by tribals and folklore traditions in India in the treatment of skin diseases, like leprosy, scabies, rash, wound, psoriasis, swelling, eczema, dandruff. The traditional healers are on the decline because the younger members of the tribe have started moving towards the towns and cities and are not willing to practice this form of medicine. There is danger that the knowledge of these medicinal plants will also die with them. Some of useful species are under serious threat due to unsustainable activities. Hence, a proper documentation of useful plants with their present status and local traditional knowledge as well as practices is urgently needed. The paper enumerates the traditional uses of 55 plant species belonging to 52 genera representing 39 families, which are used by the tribal communities of Amba-barwa wild life sanctuary area of Buldhana district for the treatment skin diseases.
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Abstract: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. is an indigenous medicinal plant used to cure skin diseases in traditional healthcare system. The present study was carried out to evaluate antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaves extracts against certain skin pathogens. Disc diffusion method was used to assess the antibacterial activity of these extracts against skin pathogens. Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus shows zone of inhibition. The growth of Streptococcus pyogenes was remarkably inhibited by chloroform extract of the Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaves than the other solvents used. Key Words: Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
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Rajendra A. Satpute and Rajendra V. Fultambkar
Abstract: M1 generation of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merill] was raised by treating the dormant seeds of variety of MAUS-71 and JS-335 with varied concentration of chemical mutagen (EMS) and physical mutagen (Gamma rays). A dose dependant decrease was noticed in most of the characters in M1 generation. The results indicated that the reduction in germination percent over control was noticed in all mutagenic treatments in both the cultivars, while increased pollen sterility was associated with corresponding increases in dose/ concentration of mutagens. Results indicate that higher doses were more effective.
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Kriti A Patel, J.D. Naik, S.S. Rajderkar, Sanjay K Jathar
Abstract: Influenza (Flu) pandemics are caused by emergence of, Re-assorted Novel Influenza A H1N1 viruses that have recently adapted to humans. It continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Health Care Personnel (HCP), the backbone of health care delivery system, have been identified as an important source of influenza for patients. Vaccination is a useful but underused means of preventing the illness and deaths but the coverage is lower than expected among HCP. Influenza vaccination programs for HCP have not met wide acceptance and it is important to explore their attitudes behind vaccine uptake. Objectives: To study the attitudes/beliefs behind vaccination. To study the frequency and pattern of adverse reactions following influenza vaccination in HCP. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in 130 HCP, working in Govt. Medical College & Hospital (Miraj & Sangli), participating voluntarily, who had taken influenza vaccine (Nasovac or Injectable). They were followed for 1 year period (Aug‘2010 to July ‘2011) from the day of vaccination. The relevant information was recorded in predesigned proforma, after informed consent. Results: Mean age group of the participants was 33.8±10.2 years. 87(67%) of the total subjects had procured the vaccine from private source but 91(70%) preferred Govt. hospital for vaccination. 78(60%) of the total subjects gave the reason for vaccination as personal protection. 71.5% participants took nasal vaccine, of which 52(56%) subjects told the reason for its selection being the ease of administration. The overall incidence of side reactions after vaccination was 40%. No significant difference was found between adverse reactions following Nasal or Injectable vaccine. Most of the reactions were mild & seen during first 3 days of vaccination which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Govt. hospital was the preferred place for vaccination by HCP. Vaccination of both types of vaccine is associated with mild adverse reactions during first 3 days with declining frequency over 1 year. The uptake of influenza vaccine is poor among HCP.
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Emerhi, E.A., Ideriah, T.J.K., and Trinya, W.
Abstract: The concentrations of various sizes of suspended particulates and volatile organic carbons along selected roadsides and control sites in the fast developing city of Port Harcourt in the Niger Delta were determined at 0m and 50m from roads during the dry and rainy seasons. The parameters were determined using portable hand held air monitors which include an Industrial Scientific Corporation ITX Multi Gas Monitor and Aerosol Mass Monitor by Met One Instrument INC. The results showed highest concentrations of PM1 (0.004mg/m3), PM2.5 (0.19 mg/m3), PM7 (0.715 mg/m3), PM10 (0.829 mg/m3), TSP (0.946 mg/m3) and VOC (4.2ppm) in the dry season and PM1 (0.004mg/m3), PM2.5 (0.28 mg/m3), PM7 (0.226 mg/m3), PM10 (0.109 mg/m3), TSP (0.129 mg/m3) and VOC (1.2ppm) in the rainy season. The differences between the dry and rainy season values were significant at P≥0.05. The concentrations of the pollutants measured at the high density areas were generally higher than the concentrations measured at low density areas; however PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and VOC showed significant differences with traffic density at P≥0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean concentrations measured at 0m and 50m. The results showed very strong relationship between PM10 and TSP in both season, PM7 and TSP in the dry season as well as PM1 with PM2.5 and PM7 in the rainy season implying similarity in sources of the particulates. The pollutants in the study area do not originate from the same sources as the correlations between PM2.5 and other fractions as well as between the suspended particulates and VOC were very low with decreasing mean r = 0.2174PM1, 0.2052 PM2.5, 0.0591 PM7, 0.0386 PM10 and 0.0209 TSP. The levels of VOC call for serious environmental concern as their concentrations at the high density stations exceeded permissible limit recommended by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria and United States. The levels of the pollutants were influenced by traffic density, seasonal variations and distances from major roads, therefore farming activities and consumption of exposed foodstuffs should be discouraged in the study areas. Key words: Suspended Particulate Matter, Volatile Organic Carbon, Traffic density, Distance, Seasonal variation, Port Harcourt, Niger Delta
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M.S. Davane, N.M. Suryawanshi, K.D. Deshpande
Abstract: Survey on prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections is prerequisite to obtain an accurate understanding of burden of cases of intestinal parasitic infections in particular area. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among all age group of people in Latur district, India. Material and Method: A total of 211 stool samples were collected from all age groups and examined by routine naked eye and microscopic examination. Results: 14(6.63%) stool samples showed presence of ova/cysts of protozoa or helminths. Protozoal cysts or trophozoites were found in 3(32.4%) while helminthic eggs were found in 11(78.5%) of positive samples. Conclusion: The prevalence is very low as compared to other studies. These findings suggest that there is increased awareness of personal hygiene and sanitary practices among people in this area.
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