Sunil S. Holikar, Kiran B. Bhaisare, L. S. Deshmukh
Abstract: Nosocomial infection is defined as an infection occurring at any site, which was acquired during a hospitalization and results from inoculation with an organism that was not present or incubating in a patient at the time of admission. Patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation in form of bag and tube, endotracheal tube tip culture was sent, angiocath tip culture were also done . The study was conducted to evaluate risk factors for nosocomial sepsis in neonates admitted in NICU. Total 1580 neonates were admitted during the study period. Out of these 223 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and either of their parents gave consent to participate in the study. Seven neonates were lost during follow up. Fifty neonates of nosocomial infection died during the study period.
 Band JD. Complications associated with central venous catheters inserted in critically ill neonates. Infect Cont Hosp Epidem., 9: 544-548, 1991.  Singh M, Deorari AK Paul VK, et al. Three years experience with neonatal ventilation from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Indian Pediatr. 30: 783-789, 1993.  Sharma PP, Haider D, Dutta A K et al.Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia. Indian Pediatr 1987; 24:1011-1017. Singh M. Nosocomial bacterial infection amongst newborn babies. Indian J Pediatr., 45: 314-318, 1978.  Gayen RP, Culner DH, Emori TG, et al.National nosocomial infections surveillance system. Comparison of rates of nosocomial infections in neonatal ICU in USA. Am 1 Med 1991; 33:1925-1965.  Manore BL, Weinberg AG, Rosenfeld CR, Browne R. The neonatal blood counts in health and disease. I. References values of neutrophilic cells. J Pediatr., 95: 89-93, 1979.  Bhutta ZA, Yusuf K. Early- onset neonatal sepsis in Pakistan: A Case Control study of risk factors in a birth cohort. Am J Perinatol., 14 : 577-581, 1997.  Soman M, Green B, Daling J. Risk factors for early neonatal sepsis. Am J Epidemiol., 121: 712-719, 1985.  Report of the National Neonatal Perinatal Database (National Neonatology Forum) 2000.  Tallur SS, Kasturi AV, Nadgir SD, Krishna BVS. Clinico-Bacteriological study of Neonatal Septicaemia in Hubli. Indian J Pediatr., 67: 169-174, 2000.  Bizzarro MJ, Raskind C, Baltimore RS, Gallagher PG. Seventyfive years of neonatal sepsis at Yale: 1928-2003. Pediatrics, 116;595-602, 2005.  Yalaz M, Cetin H, Akisu M, Aydemir S, Tunger A, Kültürsay N. Neonatal nosocomial sepsis in a level-III NICU: evaluation of the causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Turk J Pediatr., 48;13-8, 2006.  Aurangzeb B, Hameed A. Neonatal sepsis in hospital-born babies: bacterial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak., 13;629-632, 2003.  Sundaram V, Kumar P, Dutta S, et al. Blood culture confirmed bacterial sepsis in neonates in a North Indian tertiary care center: changes over the last decade. Jpn J Infect Dis., 62;46-50, 2009.  Stoll BJ. Infections of the neonatal infant. In: Behrman RE, Kleigman RM, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 794-811, 2007.  Kristóf K, Kocsis E, Nagy K. Clinical microbiology of earlyonset and late-onset neonatal sepsis, particularly among preterm babies. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung., 56;21-51, 2009.  Shah SS, Ehrenkranz RA, Gallagher PG. Increasing incidence of gram-negative rod bacteremia in a newborn intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J., 18;591-5, 1999.  Couto RC, Carvalho EA, Pedrosa TM, Pedroso ER, Neto MC, Biscione FM. A 10-year prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. Am J Infect Control, 35;183-9, 2007.  Removal of Percutaneously Inserted Central Venous Catheters in Neonates: A Risk Factor for Sepsis. Van den Hoogen A, Brouwer AJ, Gerards LJ, Fleer A, and Krediet TG. Acta Paediatrica, 97: 1250-1252, 2008.  Nasale CPAP: een kwaliteitsverbetering bij prematuur geboren kinderen. Van den Hoogen A, Brouwer AJ, Blok C, Wickel S, Termote J en Groenendaal F. Tijdschrift voor kindergeneeskunde, 1: 14-20, 2007.  Incidence of Infections of Ventricular Reservoirs in the Treatment of Post Haemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation: A Retrospective Study, 1992-2003.  Brouwer AJ, Groenendaal F, van den Hoogen A, Verboon-Maciolek M, Hanlo P, de Vries LS. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. , 92: F41-43, 2007.  In-line filters in central venous catheters in a neonatal intensive care unit. Van den Hoogen A, Uiterwaal CSPM, Bolenius JFGA, Gerards LJ, Fleer A, and Krediet TG. J Perinat Med., 34: 71-74, 2006.  Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Donowitz LG. Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. N Engl J Med., 345: 1660–1666, 2001.  Larson E. Skin hygiene and infection prevention: more of the same or different approaches. Clin Infect Dis., 29:127, 1999.  Mahieu LM, Buitenweg N, Beutels P, De Dooy JJ. Additional hospital stay and charges due to hospital acquired infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect., 47:223–229, 2001.  Mahieu LM, De Dooy JJ, Lenaerts AE, Ieven MM, De Muynck AO. Catheter manipulations and the risk of catheter-associated bloodstream infection in neonatal intensive care patients. J Hosp Infect., 48:20–26, 2001.  Oelberg DG, Joyner SE, Jiang X, Laborde D, Islam MP, Pickering LK. Detection of pathogen transmission in neonatal nurseries using DNA markers as surrogate indicators. Pediatrics, 105:311–315, 2000.  Ohlsson A, Lacy JB. Intravenous immunoglobulin for preventing infection in preterm and or low birth weight infants. The Cochrane Library, 4, 2001.  Parravicini E. Myeloid hematopoietic growth factors and their role in prevention and/or treatment of neonatal sepsis. Transfusion Med Rev., 16:11, 2002.  Saiman L, Ludington E, Pfaller M, et al. Risk factors for candidemia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey Study Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J., 19:319–324, 2000.  Sohn AH, Garrett DO, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, et al. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: results from the first national point-prevalence survey. J Pediatr., 139:821–827, 2001.  Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics, 110(2 pt1):285–291, 2002.  The UK Neonatal Staffing Study Group. Patient volume, staffing and workload in relation to risk-adjusted outcomes in a random stratified sample of UK neonatal intensive care units: a prospective evaluation. Lancet., 359:99, 2002.  Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Donowitz LG. Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. N Engl J Med., 345: 1660–1666, 2001  Larson E. Skin hygiene and infection prevention: more of the same or different approaches. Clin Infect Dis., 29:127, 1999.  Mahieu LM, Buitenweg N, Beutels P, De Dooy JJ. Additional hospital stay and charges due to hospital acquired infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect., 47:223–229, 2001.  Mahieu LM, De Dooy JJ, Lenaerts AE, Ieven MM, De Muynck AO. Catheter manipulations and the risk of catheter-associated bloodstream infection in neonatal intensive care patients. J Hosp Infect., 48:20–26, 2001.  Oelberg DG, Joyner SE, Jiang X, Laborde D, Islam MP, Pickering LK. Detection of pathogen transmission in neonatal nurseries using DNA markers as surrogate indicators. Pediatrics, 105:311–315, 2000.  Ohlsson A, Lacy JB. Intravenous immunoglobulin for preventing infection in preterm and or low birth weight infants. The Cochrane Library, 4, 2001.  Parravicini E. Myeloid hematopoietic growth factors and their role in prevention and/or treatment of neonatal sepsis. Transfusion Med Rev., 16:11, 2002.  Saiman L, Ludington E, Pfaller M, et al. Risk factors for candidemia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey Study Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J., 19:319–324, 2000.
K. D. Garkal, Shete Anjali N.
Aims and Objectives: The study was carried out with the aim of finding respiratory parameters for detecting early impairment in thermal power station workers. The extent of damage caused by exposure to substances was also assessed. Material and Methods: The pulmonary function tests were carried out in 121 coal handling plant workers in Parli, Thermal power station. Biometric parameters were recorded along with family history, smoking history. The PFT was recorded by MEDSPIROR machine. Results: The PFT parameters were seen to be decreased in thermal power station workers. The study showed restrictive type of pulmonary impairment in the workers. The impairment was seen to be increasing with increase in the duration of exposure.
 Parikh D.J. and Kashyap S.K., Industrialisation and its impact on occupational hygiene; Indian J. Industrial Medicine, 41,167,1995  Drinker S.B. and Hatch B.S., Industrial Dust; IInd edition  Roscin A.V.; Encyclopedia of occupational and safety III rd Ed.  Robinson S.; Physical fitness in relation to age; Ageing of the lung,287,1964  Leibow A. A. ;Biochemical and structural changes in the aging lungs; Ageing of the lung,97;1964  Thurlbeck W.M. and Angus G.E. ;Growth and aging of normal human lung; Chest;67;1975  Turner J.M. et al; Elasticity of human lung in relation to age; Journal of Applied Physiology;25;664;1968  Grant W.B., Hore W.B. and McHardy M.K., Disease of the respiratory system; Davidson’s Principles of practice of medicine; 248;1978  Kleinerman J. The pathology of some familiar pneumoconiosis, seminars in Roentogenology, Vol. II , 244, 1967  Gough J. and Heppleston A.G. ,The pathology of the pneumoconiosis; Industrial pulmonary diseases;25;1960  Backlake M.R., Handbook of Physiology, section III, vol.2;1965  Morris J.F. Koski A. and Johnson L.C.; Spirometric standards for healthy non-smoking adults; American review respiratory diseases,103,57;1971  Kasliwal R.M. Baldwa V.S. and Sharma P.R. ; Ventilatory test and lung volume studies in health; J. Indian medical Association;43;49;1964  Mathur K.S. ,Nigam D.K. and Garg R.K. ; Pulmonary function tests in normal healthy persons; Indian J. Chest disease ;10;80;1968  Bhargawa R.P., Misra S.M. and Gupta N.K. ; Ventilatory test and lung volume studies in Madhya Pradesh physiological norms; Indian J. Physiology and Pharmacology;17;266;1973  Leullen E.C. and Fowler W.S ; Maximal mid expiratory flow; American Review Tuberculosis; 72; 783 ;1955  Rajgopal T. and Doshi L.G. ;Baseline epidemiological study of health status of workers in the boiler maintenance section of thermal power plant; Indian J. Industrial Medicine ;34;137;1988  Golli V., Stefanin E., Stan R. and Tumescu B.; Act. Tuberc. pneumoconiosis Belgium; 60;714;1969
Ahmed Munibuddin, Khaled M Badaam, Zingade U. S.
Abstract: The present study was carried out with an objective to find out the correlation of glycosylated haemoglobin with blood sugar, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients having type II diabetes with and without complications. In this study 30 diabetic patients without any complication and 40 diabetic patients with microangiopathies, in which 20 were having diabetic retinopathy and 20 having diabetic nephropathy with retinopathy were compared with 30 normal subjects of same age group acting as a control group. Blood glucose levels (Fasting & Post meal), glycosylated haemoglobin, serum cholesterol and triglyceride were estimated in these three groups. In diabetes with microangiopathy the fasting blood glucose level was 232.92 ± 20.03, post-meal blood glucose level was 267.96 ± 25.68, HbA1c % was 10.48 ± 1.22, serum cholesterol 262.0 11.30 and triglyceride 174.60 7.87. In diabetes without any complications the fasting blood glucose level was 163.07 ± 20.31, post-meal blood glucose level was 208.33 ± 18.50, HbA1c % was 7.62 ± 0.69, serum cholesterol 213.66 11.51 and triglyceride 151.08 10.86. And in non-diabetic control subjects the fasting, post-meal blood glucose levels, HbA1c% serum cholesterol and triglyceride were 95.12 ± 9.31, 140.15 ± 9.43, 4.99 ± 0.98, 164.75 13.39 and 120.0 9.21 respectively. It was observed that the glycosylated haemoglobin % is more in diabetics and much more in diabetics with complications, and this increase in glycosylated haemoglobin % has a positive correlation with fasting, post-meal blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
 Berry C., Tardif J.C., Bourassa M.G., Coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes: part I: recent advances in prevention and noninvasive management. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:631–642, 2007.  UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, Intensive Blood Glucose Control With Sulphonylureas or Insulin Compared With Conventional Treatment and Risk of Complications in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes (UKPDS 33) Lancet 352:837-853, 1998.  Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 12th Ed Vol. 2; 1749.  Sharmila Narang Screening for Diabetes J. Diab. Asso. India, Vol35 No1, 1-2, 1995.  Tietz NW, Tinder P Estimation of Blood Glucose Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. WB Saunders Co-Philadelphia, 38, 1976.  Roeschlau P. et al, Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, 2nd English Edition.  Trinder P. Ann. Clin. Biochem 6:24, 1996.  American Diabetes Association, Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 33: s6 2-s69, 2010.  Shekhar Shah “Insulin Secreagogues” The Asian Journal of Diabetology, Vol3, No4; July-Sept-2001.  Javier Angulo, Carlos F, Sanchez-Ferrer, et. al “Impairment of Endothelium Dependant Relaxation by Increasing Percentages of Glycosylated human Haemoglobin” Hypertension, 28:583-592, 1996.  Bucala R, Tracey KJ, Cerami A.”Advanced Glycosylation Products quench nitric oxide and mediate defective endothelium-dependant vasodialatation in experimental diabetes”, J. Cli. Invest. 87(2):433-438, Feb 1991.  Uma Krishnamurthy, Michael W Steffes” Glycohaemoglobin: A primary predictor of the development of reversal of complications of Diabetes Mellitus”, Clinical Chemistry, 47:1157-1165, 2001.
Deore Deepmala, Yogesh B. Gavali, Zingade Urjita, Badaam Khaled
Setting- The present study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Biochemistry & Medicine Govt. Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. Objective- To correlate serum AAT levels in smoker and non smoker COPD patients with controls. Design- An observational study carried out in 314 subjects in the age group 40-70 years from medicine department of our college divided into three groups. Group 1- Normal healthy individuals without history of smoking (controls).Group 2- Patients with COPD for 5 years or more without history of smoking in present or past. Group 3- Patients with COPD for 5 years or more with history of smoking of at least 10 pack years. Pulmonary function tests were used for COPD diagnosis as per GOLD criteria and Serum AAT levels done by turbidimetric method. Analysis was done by ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Tukey’s test. Results- The results indicate that serum AAT levels were decreased in non smoker COPD patients (187.7 ± 55.42) & smoker COPD patients (133.37 ±19.36) when compared to controls (251.5 ± 47.73). Smoker COPD patients show lowest values of serum AAT. Conclusion- So serum AAT levels can act as predictor for future development of COPD in smokers & in non smokers.
 A.D. Lopez, K. Shibuya, C. Rao, C.D. Mathers, A.L. Hansell, L.S. Held, V. Schmid and S. Buist Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current burden and future projections Eur Respir J., 27, 397–412, 2006.  Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease updated 2008.  Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Cline MG, Lebowitz MD. Quantitative relationships between cigarette smoking and ventilatory function. Am Rev Respir Dis., 115(2),195-205, Feb 1977.  John E. Repine, Aalt Bast, Ida Lankhorst, and The Oxidative Stress Study Group Oxidative Stress in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Am J Respir Crit Care Med., Vol. 156, pp. 341–357, 1997.  Willem I de Boer, Hongwei Yao, Irfan Rahman, Future therapeutic treatment of COPD: Struggle between oxidants and cytokines International Journal of COPD, 2(3), 205–228, 2007.  M Malerba, F Ricciardolo, A Radaeli, C Torregiani, L Ceriani, E Mori, M Bontempelli, C Tantucci and V Grassi. Neutrophilic inflammation and IL-8 levels in induced sputum of alpha-1-antitrypsin PiMZ subjects, Thorax, 61:129–133, 2006.  Oliver Senn, Erich W Russi, Christian Schindler, Medea Imboden, Arnold von Eckardstein, Otto Brändli, Elisabeth Zemp, Ursula Ackermann- Liebrich, Wolfgang Berger, Thierry Rochat, Maurizio Luisetti, Nicole M Probst-Hensch and the SAPALDIA Team. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function Respiratory Research, 9:35 doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-35, 2008.  Sandford, A. J, Tracey D. Weir, John J. Spinelli, and Peter D. Paré. Z and S mutations of the α1-antitrypsin gene and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 20:287–291, 1999.  Laura Fregonese and Jan Stolk Hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and its clinical consequences Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 3:16, 2008.  Mark Brantly, Efficient and Accurate Approaches to the Laboratory Diagnosis of α 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: The Promise of Early Diagnosis and Intervention, Clinical Chemistry, 52:No. 12, 2006.  James E. Gadek Fells, Raymond L. Zimmerman, Stephen I. Rennard, And Ronald G. Crystal, Antielastases of the Human Alveolar Structures implications for the protease-antiprotease theory of emiphysema J. Clini. Inivest. The American Society for Clinical Intvestigation, Volume 68:889-898, Oct. 1981.  Chhabra SK, Rajpal S, Gupta R. Patterns of smoking in Delhi and comparison of chronic respiratory morbidity among beedi and cigarette smokers. Indian J chest Dis Allied Sci, 43:19-26, 2001.  James K Stoller, Clinical Features and Natural History of Severe α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency, Chest, 111:123S-128S, 1997.  D A Lomas, H Parfrey α1-Antitrypsin deficiency 4: Molecular pathophysiology Thorax, 59:529–535, 2004.  F. Ogushi, R. C. Hubbard, C. Vogelmeier, G. A. Fells, and R. G. Crystal. Risk Factors for Emphysema Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with a Reduction in the Association Rate Constant of Lung α 1-Antitrypsin for Neutrophil Elastase. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Inc. Volume 87, 1060-1065, Mar. 1991.  Charles Mittman, Jack Lieberman, Fred Marasso and Armando Miranda. Smoking and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease in Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency, Chest, 60:214-221, 1971.  Somayajulu, G.L., Raja Rao, D. And Reddy P.P. Serum Alpha-1-Antitrypsin in Smokers and Non-Smokers. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 11(I):70-72, 1996.
Khaled Mohsin Badaam, N.D. Somwanshi, U.S. Zingade, Ahmed Munibuddin
Introduction: Football is the most popular sport played all over world. There is scarce published data on football players from India, although there are numerous published reports for American, European and Australian players. Study was conducted to determine VO2max and plasma lactate values of football players. Objective: To evaluate aerobic capacity (VO2max) and anaerobic capacity (lactate) in professional football players and compare it with controls. Methods: 60 males, aged 21 to 24 years were included. Thirty were professional football players and thirty were controls with sedentary lifestyle. Queens College Step Test was used to determine predicted VO2max. An all-out effort of running for 60 seconds was performed by both groups and immediately after that; venous sample was collected for plasma lactate estimation. Unpaired t test was used to test statistical significance. Results and Conclusion: Mean predicted VO2max was 59.53 ± 2.96 ml/kg/min in players, and 42.61 ± 3.45 ml/kg/min in controls, mean plasma lactate 104.03 ± 9.55 mg/dl in players and 65.13 ± 7.6 mg/dl in controls. The difference in VO2max and lactate is statistically highly significant with ‘p’ value less than 0.001. Thus, football players showed superior aerobic and anaerobic capacity. VO2max of local professional players fall in the range reported for elite soccer players from various countries. The coaches may get help in improving performance of players by proper designing of training programs in accordance with research studies. Maybe, this will contribute to put India ahead in international Soccer rankings.
 Feza Korkusuz. Uniting science and the art of football. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, Vol. 6, Suppl. 10: pg 1-2, 2007.  Al'Hazzaa H.M., Almuzaini K.S., Al-Refaee S.A et al. Aerobic and anaerobic power characteristics of Saudi elite soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 41: 54-61, Mar 2001.  Mc Ardle W.D, Katch F.I, Katch V.L. Essentials of Exercise Physiology. Second Edition (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, U.S.A),126-140, 180-20, 2000.  Stolen T., Chamari K., Castagna C. et al. Physiology of soccer: An update. Sports Medicine, 35(6), 501-536, 2005.  Helgerud J., Engen L.C., Wisloff U, et al. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 33(11):1925-31, Nov. 2001.  Shyamal Koley. Association of Cardio respiratory Fitness, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Collegiate Population of Amritsar, Punjab, India. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology, Volume 1 Number 1, 2007.  Edwards AM, Clark N, Macfadyen AM. Lactate and ventilatory thresholds reflect the training status of professional soccer players where maximum aerobic power is unchanged. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2: 23-29, 2003.  McMillan K., Helgerud J., Macdonald R et al. Physiological adaptations to soccer specific endurance training in professional youth soccer players. Br J Sports Med., 39:273-277, 2005.  Da Silva CD, Bloomfield J and Carlos JBM, A review of stature, body mass and maximal oxygen uptake profiles of U17, U20 and first division players in Brazilian soccer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 7: 309-319, 2008.
S.M.Deshapnde, K.R. Aher and , G.D.Gaikwad
Abstract: In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in study area for its suitability for drinking purposes, sixty groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon period of the year 2011 and analyzed for various parameters. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, CO32−, HCO3− and SO42− , NO3−, PO4−, and F − were determined. The value of TDS, Cl− and SO4 − ion concentration is within the limits in majority of the samples. The excess amount of Ca++, Mg++, TH and NO3− and F − in the groundwater is due to anthropogenic factors and geological characteristics of the aquifer. Assessment of groundwater samples indicated that groundwater in study area is chemically not suitable for drinking uses. Total hardness (25%), Calcium (59%), Magnesium (13%), fluoride (50%) and nitrate (17 %) are crosses the maximum permissible limits for human consumption as per the drinking water standards.
 Aher K.R., Groundwater Quality Studies of Chikalthana area of Aurangabad, Ph.D thesis submitted to Dr.B.A.Marathwada University, Aurangabad (MS) India, 2012.  APHA., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Waters, American Public Health Association, 18th Edition, Washington, DC, 1992.  Andre, L., Franceschi, M., Pouchan, P., & Atteia, O., Using geochemical data and modeling to enhance the understanding of groundwater flow in a regional deep aquifer, Aquitain Basin, south-west of France. Journal of Hydrology, 305, 40–62, 2005.  Berger, T., Peltol, P., Drake, H.,and Astrom, M., Impact of a Fluorine-Rich Granite Intrusion on Levels and Distribution of Fluoride in a Small Boreal Catchment, Aquat Geochem (2012) 18:77–94, DOI 10.1007/s10498-011-9151-2, 2012.  Bhardwaj Vikram and Singh Dhruv Sen., Surface and groundwater quality characterization of Deoria District, Ganga Plain, India, Environ Earth Sci (2011) 63:383–395 DOI 10.1007/s12665-010-0709-x, 2010.  BIS.,Specifications for Drinking Water, IS: 10500: 1991, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1991.  Brunt R, Vasak L, Griffioen J.,Fluoride in groundwater: probability of occurence of excessive concentration on global scale. International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC). Report SP 2004–2, Utrecht, 2004.  Deshpande S.M.and Aher K.R.,Quality of Groundwater from Tribakeswar-Peth area of Nashik District and its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Purpose, Gond. Geol. Mag., 26 (2). pp157-162, 2011.  Deshpande S.M.and Aher K.R., Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agriculture use in Parts of Vaijapur, District Aurangabad, MS, India, Jour. Chem. Sci., vol.2(1), pp 25-31, 2012.  Domenico, P.A., Concepts and models in groundwater hydrology.nMcGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.  EEC (European Economic Communities) Richtlinic des Rates Vem., 15.7 1980 liber die qualitat Von Wasser fur den menschlichen Gebrauch. Amtslelatt der Europaischen gemeinschaft vom. 30-8 No. L 229, pp. 11-29, 1980.  Edmunds, W. M.,Renewable and non-renewable groundwater in semi-arid regions. Developments in Water Science, 50, 265–280, 2003.  Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A., Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1979.  Harrison PTC.,Fluoride in water: a UK perspective. J Fluor Chem 126(11–12):1448–1456. doi: 10.1016/j.jfluchem.2005.09.009, 2005.  Jha SK, Nayak AK, Sharma YK, Mishra VK, Sharma DK., Fluoride accumulation in soil and vegetation in the vicinity of brick fields. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 80(4):369–373. doi: 10.1007/s00128-008-9391-z, 2008.  Kumar M, Kumari K, Ramanathan AL, Saxena R .,A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two agriculture dominated districts of Punjab, India. J Environ Geol 53:553–574, 2007.  Matthess G., The properties of groundwater. Wiley, New York, p 498, 1982.  Mohapatra M, Anand S, Mishra BK, Giles DE, Singh P., Review of fluoride removal from drinking water. J Environ Manag 91(1):67–77. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.08.015, 2009.  Majumdar D, Gupta N., Nitrate pollution of groundwater and associated human health disorders. Indian J Environ Health 42:28–39, 2000.  Nickson, R. T., McArthur, J. M., Shrestha, B., Kyaw-Nyint, T.O., Lowry, D., Arsenic and other drinking water quality issues, Muzaffargarh District. Pakistan Applied Geochemistry, 55–68, 2005.  Nosrat Aghazadeh1., Asghar Asghari Mogaddam., Assessment of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Uses in the Oshnavieh Area, Northwest of Iran, Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 30-40, 2010.  Ramesh.K and Elango,L., Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India, Environ Monit Assess DOI 10.1007/s10661-011-2231-3, 2011.  Ravikumar., P. and Somashekar., R. K., Multivariate analysis to evaluate geochemistry of groundwater in Varahi river basin of Udupi in Karnataka (India), The Ecoscan, 4 (2&3): 153-162, 2010.  Reddy, L., Chandra Sekhar., Deshpande, S.M., Reddy, K.V., Ramana and Aher, K.R., Hydro Geochemical Processes in the Groundwater Environment of Vemula area, Kadapa District, South India, International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, Vol. 3 (1) pp 18-24, 2012.  Shanmugam Packialakshmi and Ambujam N. K., A hydrochemical and geological investigation on the Mambakkam mini watershed, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, Environ Monit Assess, DOI 10.1007/s10661-011-2189-1, 2011.  Singh Kuldip., Hundal H. S. and Singh Dhanwinder.,Geochemistry and assessment of hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater in the southern part of Bathinda district of Punjab, northwest India, Environ Earth Sci, 64:1823–1833 DOI 10.1007/s12665-011-0989-9, 2011.  Schuh WM, Klinekebiel DL, Gardner JC, Meyar RF.,Tracer and nitrate movements to groundwater in the Norruem Great Plains. J Environ Qual 26:1335–1347, 1997.  Trivedi, R.K. and Goel,P.K., Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Environmental Publications Karad, India 215, 1984.  Toth J.,The role of regional gravity flow in the chemical and thermal evolution of groundwater. In: Proceedings of the first Canadian/American conference on hydrogeology, Banff, Alta, 1984.  Ozsvath DL., Fluoride concentrations in a crystalline bedrock aquifer Marathon County, Wisconsin. Environ Geol 50(1):132–138. doi:10.1007/s00254-006-0192-6, 2006.  WHO., Guidelines for drinking water, Vol. 2, Recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.
Priya D., Hiwarkar P.A., Khakse G.M., Wahab S.N
Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes in adults worldwide is expected to rise to 5.4% by 2025. The best person to manage a disease that is affected so markedly by daily fluctuations in diet, exercise and infections are the patients themselves. As such there is need to investigate the practice among the people with Diabetes so the present descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the practice regarding self health care among all diabetics patients served by Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur. All the patients of type -2 Diabetes Mellitus attending Diabetes Clinic in a first fortnight of June were enrolled in the study. Total 952 patients attended the Diabetes clinic during this period. Knowledge and practice of self-health care was asked to each study subject with predesigned and pretested proforma. Out 0f 927 study subjects, maximum were in the age group of 61-70 years. Only 406 (43.8%) study subjects were aware about and only 357 (38.5%) study subjects were taking small and frequent meals. 106 (11.4%) study subjects were knowing about food items to be restricted. 407(43.9%) study subjects were aware about the effects of exercise. 558 (60.2%) study subjects were not doing any type of exercise. Patients should be educated about various aspects of self health care so that they can effectively participate in prevention of development of complications.
 King H, Albert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025, prevalence numerical estimates and projection. Diabetes care, 21: 144-143, 1998.  Amos AF, Mc Carty DJ Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications. Estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabetic medicine, 14:557-585, 1997.  Seshiah V, Balaji V, Madhuri Balaji. The rising burden of diabetes and its complications. In Medicine up date ed. Santosh Panja, vol.11, 409-412, 2001.  Leo P Krall . Education : A Treatment for Diabetes. In Joslins’ Diabetes Mellitus, eds. Alexander Marble,12th edition. Lee and Febiger Pub, Philadelphia, 465-482, 1985.  Kaur K, Singh MM, Kumar, Walia I. Knowledge and self care practices of diabetes in a resettlement colony of Chandigarh. Indian Journal of Medical Science, 52(8): 341-347, 1998.  Ramana Gopalan, DK Srinivas and Bina Dusgupta. Perception and practices of diabetics in Pondcherry Indian Journal of Medical Research, 94: 30-35, 1991.  KY Tham, JJY Ong, DKL Tan, KY Hon. How much do diabetic patients know about diabetes mellitus and its complications? Ann Academic Medicine Singapore, 33: 503-509, 2004.  Viswanathan V, R Shobhana, C Snehalatha, R Seena A Ramchandran. Need for education of foot care in diabetic patients in India. Journal of Association of Physicians of India, 47(11) 1083-1085, 1999.  Viswanathan V, N Thomas, N Tandon, A Asirvathdam, Seena Rajasekar, A Ramchandran, K Senthivasan Vs Murugan, Muthulakshmi. Profile of diabetic foot complications and its associated complications- A multicentric study from India. Journal of Association of Physicians of India, 53: 933-935, 2005.  WHO Study Group on Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus, Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus: report of WHO Study Group. Geneva, World Health Organization Technical Report Series: 844, 1994.  Jitender Nagpal; Abhishek Bhatia. Quality of diabetes care in the middle and high income group populance. Diabetes care, 29:2341-2348, 2006.
Nikhil N. Tambe, Rajesh B. Goel
Abstract: Globally more than 9 people die every minute from injuries or violence. According to WHO’s World Health Report, injury will be the third leading cause of death in India by year 2020. Many people accept injury as ‘fate’, ‘destiny’ or as ‘part of life’; but the fact is most injuries are predictable hence preventable. Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms such as accidents, before they occur. Injuries are preventable and do not occur randomly. This fact has enabled many researchers to create conceptual frameworks which can help describe magnitude of problem and groups at risk; identify factors that increase or decrease the risk for injury; explore ways to prevent them by designing, implementing and evaluating interventions and promote the wide spread adoption of effective strategies, programs, policies and practices. Ideas presented in 8 different conceptual frameworks for injury prevention were studied and integrated. A complimentary approach was maintained to understand the important risk factors and preventive strategies against all types of injuries. This integrative study will help us to create an action plan towards injury free environment.
 Sethi D, Habibula S, McGee K, Peden M. Guidelines for conducting community surveys on injuries and violence, Int j inj contrsaf prom 2004, http://www.informaworld.com/index/713817814.pdf , 3 March 2010.  http://www.cdc.gov/injury/global/index.html  Gururaj G. Injuries in India: A national perspective. In: Burden of Disease in India: Equitable development-Healthy future. New Delhi: National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. Ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India, 2005  Anderson R, Menckel E. On the prevention of accidents and injuries A comparative analysis of conceptual frameworks. Accid. Anal and Prev, Vol 27 No. 6 737-768, 1995  National Crime Records Bureau, Accidental deaths and suicides in India. Ministry of home affairs. New Delhi:Government of India, 2009a  Dahlberg LL, Krug EG. Violence-a global public health problem. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization;1-56,2002.  Gielen A, Sleet D. Application of behavior change theories and methods to injury prevention. Epidemiol Rev 25(1) 65-76, Feb 2003.  Cataldo MF, Dershewitz RA, Wilson M, et al. Childhood injury control. In: Krasnegor NA, Arasteh JD, Cataldo MF, eds. Child health behavior: a behavioral pediatrics perspective. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1986.
Hemant Mahajan, Deepak Bhutkar, Naresh Gill, Maya Padvi
Objective: 1) To study proportions of various central nervous system infections in HIV positive patients. 2) To study the correlation between central nervous systems infections and CD4 counts. Material and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted at TN Medical College Mumbai. Total 50 HIV positive patients having neurological manifestations were included in this study. The information was gathered by personal interview using semi-structured proforma. Results: shows majority of the patients 37 (74%) were males and 33 (66%) of patients were from 30 to 49 years of age group. Maximum patients had TB meningitis followed by tuberculoma. Only 10 (20%) of patients had CD4 counts more than 200 of which 9 (90%) were males. Patients’ on anti-retroviral therapy had more mean CD4 count. Patients diagnosed with Toxoplasmosis and Neurocysticercosis had minimum CD-4 cell count of 50 to 100. 42 (84%) HIV patients with neurological complication had other opportunistic infections and most of these patients had CD4 count less than 200. Total42 (84%) of 50 patients had associated opportunistic infections of which 17 (40.5%) had pulmonary tuberculosis, 13(30.9%) had abdominal tuberculosis. Of these 42 patients having associated opportunistic infection 26 (61.9%) patients were not taking ART. Opportunistic infections were more common in patient’s not taking ART. Summary and Conclusion: In our study it was found that opportunistic infections were the most common cause of neurological involvement in HIV infected patients. The mean CD4 count was significantly low in all neurological manifestations suggesting severe immunosuppression. Thus neurological manifestations can serve as a good predictor of the advanced HIV infection. Hence CD4 count can serve as an indicator for initiation of chemoprophylaxis of certain opportunistic infections.
 NACO, HIV / AIDS Epidemiological Surveillance and Estimation report for year 2005, Apr 2006.  Janssen R S Epidemiology and Neuroepidemiology for HIV infection In: AIDS and Central Nervous System (ed. Levy R M), PP., 13-37 Lippincott-Raven Philadelphia, 1997.  Simpson D M and Tagliati Neurological manifestation of HIV infection Annals of internal medicine, 121:769-85, 1994.  Torok M E Immediate or deferred antiretroviral therapy for central nervous system opportunistic infections Aids, 19:535-6, 2005.  Attili Suresh Venkata Satya, Gulati A Kumar, Singh Vijay Pratap Varma, Datla Vivekananda, R A IMadhukar, Sundar Shyam Neurological Manifestations HIV-Infected Patients around Varanasi, INDIA African Journal of Neurological Sciences, Vol.25 no. 33-40, 2006.  GOngora-Rivera F, Santos-Zambrano 3, Moreno-Andrade T, Calzada-Lopez P, Soto-Hernandez JL. The clinical spectrum of neurological manifestations in AIDS patients in Mexico. Arch Med Res., 31(4):393-8, Jul-Aug 2000.  Satishchandra P, Nalini A, Gourie-Devi M, Khanna N, Santosh V, Ravi V, Desai A, Chandramuki A, Jayakumar PN, Shankar S K Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health &Neuro Sciences, Bangalore. Profile of neurologic disorders associated with HIV/AIDS from Bangalore, south India (1989-96).Indian J Med Res., 111:14-23, Jan 2000.  Teja VD, Talasila SR, Vemu L. Department of Microbiology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andra Pradesh, India. Neurologic manifestations of HIV infection: an Indian hospital-based Study. AIDS Read., 15(3):139-43, C3, Mar 2005.  Jowi JO, Mativo PM, Musoke S. S., Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalised patients with neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS at the Nairobi hospital. East Afr Med J., 84(2):67-76, Feb 2007.  Gochitashvili N, Tsertsvadze T, Gatserelia L, Abashidze L, Sharvadze L. Relationship of neurological manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count and plasma viral load in HIV infected patients. Georgian Med News, 121:51-5, Apr 2005.  Whiteman M, Epsinoza L., Post M J, Bell M D, Falcon S Centra nervous system tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients: clinical and Radiographic findings. AJNR Am J. Neuroradiol., 16(6): 1319-27, Jun-Jul 1995.
Srivastava AK, Sudhanshu Kumar
Abstract: Rat has always been a problem for agricultural fields. Farmers of Jharkhand are always troubled by these rodents who damage grains in fields or in store. The cost of various chemicals to kill or repel rat is beyond the affordable limit of the poor tribal farmers in Jharkhand. Farmers of Panch-Pargana area of Jharkhand have developed an indigenous way to get rid of rats from their fields and prevent damage caused by them below economic injury level. Bhelwa (Semicarpus anacardium) seed oil is used for this purpose. Though the practice is quite old and time tested it is still not known to modern scientific world. The aim of this communication is to study the detailed method of rat population management through the Bhelwa seed oil.
 Chopra R.N.,Nayar S.L.,Chopra I.C., Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants; CSIR, New Delhi, 1956.  Haines, H.H., The Botany of Bihar and Orissa,Vol I-IV. BSI ,Calcutta, 1921-25.  Hembrom, P.P., Adivasi-Ausadh (Horopathy),Vol I-VII. Paharia Seva Samiti,Pakur,Bihar, 1995.  Jain, S.K., Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany. Deep Publications, New Delhi, 1991.  Sudhanshu and Bandana., The Poor man’s plant ,The Telegraph, Ranchi p 2, 22 Feb 2005.  Pandey H.P., Rat population management through Mucuna.Ethnobotany 15(1-2):100- 102, 2003.
Srivastava A K, Fr. Prabhat Kennedy Soreng s.j.
Abstract: Geastrum is a genus of fungi belonging to class: Basidiomycetes, order: Lycoperdales, family: Lycoperdaceae and sub-family: Geastrae. This genus includes a number of edible and inedible species. Geastrum coronatum and Geastrum entomophilum are inedible. Two species of Geastrum are found in Jharkhand, both of them are edible. They taste delicious; they are sold in the market with high price. One species occurs as the rainy season starts in the months of June-July which is locally known as jaitputu or rugra. Second species appears a bit later locally known as kherputu. Many species of Geastrum are commonly known as earthstars because when its fruiting body is young and unopened resembles small spheres lying in the soil but as it matures the thick leathery outer layer of tissue called peridium splits star-like to form a number of fleshy arms, which curves downward to reveal the inner spore sac which contains the fertile tissue known as the gleba. The network of fertile tissue inside the inner peridium, the capillitium arises from the columella. The spore sac has a narrow grooved opening at the top from which the spores are released. The fungus is saprobic and grows on the ground, in leaf litter, or on decomposing wood. In Jharkhand it is found abundantly in the Sal (Shorea robusta) forest.
 Fazolino EP, Calonge FD, Baseia IG., Geastrum entomophilum, a new earthstar with an unusual spore dispersal strategy. Mycotaxon (104):449–453., 2008.  Johnson, Minnie May., The Gasteromycetae of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin 22IV (7): 271–352, 1928.  Kasuya, Taiga and Hosaka, Kentaro et al., New records of Geastrum from Japanese sand dunes, Mycotaxon, Volume 118, October-December, pp. 1-15, 2011.  Krieger, L. C. C., A guide to the Mushrooms: Their Botanical Position, Mode of Growth, Physiology, Habitat, Ecology and Economic importance. Asiatic Publishing House, Delhi p. 203-222, 2007.  Leite, Gomes and Anileide., Geastrum species from the Amazon Forest, Brazil, Mycotaxon, Volume 118,October-December, pp. 383-392, 2011.  Silva, da. and Barbosa, Bianca Denise et al., Mycotaxon, Volume 118, October-December, pp. 355-359, 2011.  Wikipedia, free encyclopedia.
Madhavi Marathe, L.I. Bhattacharjee, Pradeep Sawardekar, Sunita Thorat, Gopa Kothari
Introduction: Dietary and eating habits are largely formed during early childhood and healthy eating habits acquired at this age will provide sustainable nutrition and dietary benefits. Educating children to eat, enjoy, and ask for foods that meet their needs becomes an integral part of improving the nutritional status of young children. Objective: To study the food selection acceptance for providing Pro-Vitamin A Foods among Young Children in Urban Slums. Subjects and Methods: The subjects for the study included 250 pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years. The spontaneous preferences of vegetables and fruits and acceptance for various preparations were studied among these young children. Results: Bright coloured fruits and vegetables were preferred over light to dull coloured ones by the children. A strong preference was observed for the bright coloured pro-vitamin A foods over the more familiar and commonly purchased and prepared other vegetables and fruits. Colours have shown to influence the spontaneous selection of the vegetables and fruits to a large extent. Conclusions: Children preferred deep orange and red coloured pro-vitamin A foods over light and dull coloured ones.
 Birch L.L. and J.A. Fisher, The role of experience in the development of children’s eating behavior. In: Why we eat: the psychology of eating. Capaldi E.D. ed. Washington DC.American Psychological Association p. 113-41, 1996.  Verghese I., A Study of Vitamin A Related Food Behaviour among Socially Disadvantaged Preschool Children in Urban Slums. Master’s Thesis, SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai, India, 1992.
Nitin S. Mehkarkar, C.G.Chaudhari
Abstract: Birth of baby brings happiness in the lives of parents and family .But what could be more tortuous for parents to see their baby with the deformity of cleft lip and palate .Along with cosmetic defect, the deformity puts enormous psychological, emotional and financial burden to parents .The anatomical defects suffered by children with cleft lip and cleft palate are known causes of early difficulties with feeding which can lead to under nutrition and compromised growth. The basic reason behind choosing this topic is lack of such studies in India.
 Avedian L, Ruberg R. Impaired weight gain in cleft palate infants.Cleft Palate J., 17:24-26, 1980.  KhadilkarV.V.,Khadilkar A.V., Shah N., Agarwal K.N. IAP Growth Monitoring guidelines from birth to 18 years. Indian Pediatr., 44:187-198, 2007.  Hossain M., Sherkat M. An epidemiologic study of oral clefts in Iran:Analysis of 1669 cases. Cleft Palate Craniofac J., 37:2191-2196, 2000.  Lee J, Nunn J, Wright C. Arch DIs Child .1997; Height and weight achievement in cleft lip and palate, 76(1):70-72, 1997.  National family health survey -3 vol 1, 21, 2005-2006.  Jones W. Weight gain and feeding in the neonate with cleft –a 3 center study.Cleft Palate J., 25:379-384, 1988.[Medline]  Jensen B, Kreiborg S, Dahl E, Fogh –Anderson P. Cleft lip and palate in Denmark 1976-1981.Epidemiology, variability and early somatic development .Cleft Palate J., 25:258-269, 1988. [Medline]  Hunter W, Di J, Man D. The timing of height and weight deficits in twins discordant for cleft lip and /or palate J., 14:158, 1977. [Medline]  Bowers E, Mayro R, Whitaker L. General body growth in children with cleft of the lip, palate and craniofacial structure.Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg., 21:7-14, 1987.
Mandar Tilak, Nikhil Bhamare
Aim: To study efficacy of pcrogesterone utilizing its smooth muscle relaxant action for augmenting hydrotherapy for medical management of small mid and lower ureteric calculi. Materials and methods : Patients of mid and lower ureteric calculi in age group 20 t0 50 were selected. They were evaluated for size of calculus, kidney function tests, serum electrolytes as well as cardio-respiratory fitness assessment was done. 80 patients with calculi of size 6mm-1.5 mm, with normal kidney functions, normal lipid profile as well as normal cardio-respiratory fitness were selected for the study. These were randomly divided into two groups; labeled control and test group such that each group had 40 pts with ; 20pts with mid and 20 with lower ureteric or vesico-ureteric junction.(VUJ) calculi .After written informed consent, patients in test group were given following therapy: Inj depot medroxy-progesterone acetate 300mg i.m single dose hydrotherapy : (1pint normal saline + inj Lassix 20 mg ) such 3 times daily for 5 days.In control group Plain Hydrotherapy as mentioned above was given.Patients were observed for 7 days in hospital and for 2 weeks on O.P.D basis after discharge and results were tabulated. Results: The expulsion rate was significantly higher in group-2 i.e test group where progesterone was used for calculus expulsion (65 & 80 % for mid & lower urtereic calculi) as compared to control group of plain hydrotherapy (30 & 45 % respectively). Average time of extrusion of the calculi for test group was 4 days while for the control group was 10 days.Extrusion with progesterone therapy occurred more for lower ureteric calculi and V.U.J calculi and more so in females as compared to males.Average size of urtereric calculus expelled by progesterone therapy was 9.5mm with largest size being 1.4cm.Conclusion : Progesterone due to its smooth muscle relaxant action can be effectively used in medical management of small mid, lower and vesico-ureteric junction calculi up to 1.4mm size. This is an economical and can be practiced at peripheral centers.
 Marshall L. Stoller: Urinary stone disease .Smith General Urology: Editors: Emil A. Tanagho, Jack .W. McAninch 17th edition pg 262  Susan Standring, PhD, DSc, Neil R Borley, FKC Gray's Anatomy, 40th Edition By Susan Standring, PhD, DSc, FKC.  Marshall L. Stoller: Urinary stone disease .Smith General Urology: Editors: Emil A.Tanagho, Jack .W. McAninch 17th edition Pg no 268.  Shlomo Raz M.D., Marcia Zeigler B.S., Marco Caine M.S., and F.R.C.S Hormonal influence on the adrenergic receptors of the Ureter: Article first published online: 5 Dec 2008 DOI:10.1111/j.1464- 410X.1972 .tb10100. British Journal of Urology. Volume 44, Issue 4, pages405–410; 14.2, August 1972  Weiss RM, Bassett AL, Hoffman B FInvest Urol., 16(2):123-7.Adrenergic innervation of the ureter, Sept. 1978.  Parsons JK, Hergan LA, Sakamoto K, Lakin C. Source Division of Urology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California 92103, USA. J Urol., 177(3):983-7; discussion 987.Efficacy of alpha-blockers for the treatment of ureteralstones, Mar 2007.  Cervenàkov I, Fillo J, Mardiak J, Kopecný M, Smirala J, Lepies P Int Urol Nephrol., 34(1):25-9.Speedy elimination of ureterolithiasis in lower part of ureters with the alpha 1-blocker—Tamsulosin SourceTabakova- Str,No: 8, 811 07 Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Europe, 2002.  Canda AE, Turna B, Cinar GM, Nazli O. Urol Int., 78(4):289-98.Physiology and pharmacology of the human ureter: basis for current and future treatments, 2007.  Progesterone information from Drugs Update www.drugsupdate.com/generic/view/658  Fransesco Porpiglia et al Title: Nifidepine versustamsulosin for the management of lower ureteral stone E Journal:. The Journal Of Urology ® Vol. 172,568–571, August 2004  Beach MA, Mauro LS Pharmacologic expulsive treatment of ureteral calculi. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Jul-Aug; 40(7-8):1361-8. Epub, Jul 18 2006  Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, Novarini A, Giannini: Nifedipine and methylprednisolone in facilitating ureteral stone passage: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A J Urol., 152(4):1095-8, Oct 1994.  A.L Mikkelsen et al. Title: The Effect of Hydroxyprogesterone on Ureteral Stones Journal: International Urology and Nephrology 20 (3), pp. 257-260, 1988  Miller O.F, Kane C.J: Time to stone passage for observed ureteral calculi; A guide for patient education: J Urol., 162-688-91, 1999  Hübner WA, Irby P, Stoller ML; Natural history and current concepts for the treatment of small ureteral calculi; Euro. Urol., 24(2):172- 6, 1993  B.Lojanavivat et al. Title: Effect of low dose & standard dose tamsulosin in the treatment of distal ureteric stones; A randomized controlled study. Journal of international medical research; 36:529-536, 2008  Marco Dellabella et alTitle:The efficacy of tamsulosin in management of juxtavesical ureteral stones Journal: Vol. 170, 2202; The journal of Urology, Dec 2003
Girish Thakur, Vinod Kandakure, Amit Thote, Ayesha Kausar, Anup Gilada
Abstract: Tracheostomy is most valuable and life saving operation in which a surgical airway in the cervical trachea is created. Timing of tracheostomy is most important before anoxic damage results. The aim of study is to study various indications and management of the tracheostomy. If managed efficiently during postoperative period, morbidity and mortality can be reduced in the tracheostomy.
 Davis H. S., Kretchmer H. F., and Cleveland D.A.: JAMA, 155, 13, 1156, 1953.  Glass W.W.. Kinger J. R.. Lui A.: Arch of Surgery Vol. 85, 56, 1962.  Macclelland R. M. A.: Barit Med. J. 2:567, 1965.  Baily & Love: Short practices of surgery.  Nelson G. & Boweer F.:JAMA, 164-14-1530, 1957.  Bosten M. D.:The new Eng. J. of Med.:264,587,61.  Dugan D & Samson P:Amer. Surg. J. 106,290,1963.  Timmis H.:Advances in Surg. Vol. 7:203 , 1973.  Meade J. W..:New Eng J. of ME.265:519, 1961.
Hemant Mahajan, Yasmeen Kazi, Bhuwan Sharma, GD Velhal
Objective: Assessment of impact of health intervention on KAP and hypertensive status of patients in an urban slum of Mumbai. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Shivaji Nagar urban slum which is a field practice area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, of TN Medical College Mumbai. Hypertensive patients above 40 years of age were included in this study. The information was gathered by personal interview using semi-structured proforma. Results: Out of 340 subjects 176 (51. 76%) were males. Before intervention 83.42%, 69.11%, 73.24% patients had poor knowledge, attitude and practices respectively which decreased to 25%, 21.76%, 33.81% respectively. Mean systolic BP, Diastolic BP, Body mass index and weight was also decreased as practices of patients improved to after health intervention. There was improvement in self care practices and life style modification factors. Conclusion: People have to be educated through mass media on hypertension and its risk factors. The health workers have to play part by educating the people and also themselves being an example in avoiding the risk factors for hypertension like consumption of fatty food, alcohol and smoking. People have to be educated on the importance of physical exercises and have to be encouraged to do them.
1. WHO Expert Committee. Primary prevention of essential Hypertension. WHO. Tech Rep Ser.686. Geneva. 1983. 2. Stamler J. Blood pressure and high blood pressure: Aspects of risk. Hypertension; 18 (Suppl.): 05-1, 107, 1991. 3. Flack JM, Nearton, Grimm R Jr, et al. Blood pressure and mortality among men with prior myocardial infarction: Multiple risk factor intervention trial research group. Circulation, 92; 2437-2445, 1995. 4. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: Global burden of disease study. Lancet; 349(15): 1269-1442, 1997. 5. RB Gaurav et al. “Biochemical profile of hypertensive individuals in an urban community”,Bombay Hospital Journal, 55 (12);663-668, 2001. 6. Olusegun Adesola Busari, Olanrewaju. Impact of Patients’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Hypertension on Compliance with Antihypertensive Drugs ina Resource-poor Setting. TAF Prev Med Bull; 9(2):87-92, 2010. 7. Stamler R. Implications of the INTERSALT study. Hypertension, 17(Suppl. 1): 1017-1020, 1991. 8. Feng J.He, Graham A.MacGregor. How far should salt intake be reduced? Hypertension (Indian Edition), 5(1): 16-22., Jan- Feb 2004. 9. Ducher M, Fauvel J-P, Maurine M, et al. Sodium intake and blood pressure in healthy individuals. J Hypertens, 21: 289-294, 2003. 10. Malhotra S. L. Dietary factors causing hypertension in India. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 23(10): 1353-1363, 1970. 11. National High Blood Pressure Education Programme. Edward J Rocella, http: www.nhlbi.nih.gov › About NHLBI › NHLBI Organization 12. Blair S. N, Goodyear N.N, Gibbons L.W, Cooper K.H. Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension in healthy normotensive men and women. Journal of American Medical Association, 252: 487-490, 1984. 13. Anand MP. Epidemiology of hypertension. Current concepts in hypertension Sainani GS (Ed) ICP Mumbai, p. 4-13, 1995. 14. . J Lindstorm, Diabetes Care, 26(12):3230-3236, 2003. 15. WC Knowler, N Engl J Med., 346(6): 393-403, 2002. 16. A Ramchandran Diabetologia, 49(2):289-297, 2006. 17. Robert Gerzoff, Gojka Roglic, Lancet, 371(9626):1783-1789, 2008. 18. Thomas J. Moore, Paul R. Conlin et al. DASH (Dietary Approaches to Study Hypertension) Diet is Effective Treatment for Stage 1 Isolated Systolic Hypertension. Hypertension, 38: 155-158. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.38.2.155, 2001. 19. ‘BEST PRACTICES IN HYPERTENSION’ The Hypertension Improvement Project, Cleveland Clinic Medicine Institute, Independance, OH. page 1-17. 20. “New Canadian Blood Pressure Education Program a Powerful Tool in Fight to Reduce Stroke.” Science daily news, May 25 2011. http: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110525120052.htm
Amit R. Burande, Meeta A. Burande, Vasudha Nikam, Asha D Patil, Anita R. Gune
Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is study of integumentary features showing skin patterns on fingers. It is important for medicolegal purpose as well as in clinical medicine due to its association with genetic disorders. CTEV is one of the common disorder with single gene mutation and dominant inheritance. Hence in this study we evaluated the dermatoglyphics in CTEV children as compared to normal counterparts. Material and Methods: Material required for standard ink method was collected and implemented for data collection of both the hands. Oral consent of the parents was obtained. Study was carried out in Department of anatomy, in D Y Patil medical college during January 2008 to June 2009. Total 50 CTEV and 50 normal children were included in study.Results:In CTEV whorls were highest while in normal children Ulnar loop were maximum. Hypothenar pattern is more while thenar pattern is less in CTEV children. Simian lines and Sydney lines were seen only in CTEV male children. Additional lines were less in CTEV male while more in CTEV female children. CTEV female has less frequency of t and higher frequency of t’ while CTEV male children shows decreased frequency of t and increased frequency of t’ as compare to normal counterparts. CTEV children have higher TFRC count, AB Ridge count and Atd angle as compare to normal counterparts. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics in CTEV shows significant variation as compare to normal children. It strengthen the family and genetic association in the disease and warrant further research in the same direction.
 Cummins H. amd Midlo C., Finger prints ,palms and soles. Dover publication, Newyork, cited by Schumann and Alter 1976, 1961.  Penrose L. S., Medical significance of fingerprints and related phenomena, British Medical Journal, vol. 2, 321-325, 1968.  Gray’s Anatomy, 38th Edition, edited by Peter L. Williams, Mary Dayson page no. 80, 1995.  Lambourne G., The fingerprints story Publisher Harrap Ltd., London, 1984.  Montagu Ashley M.F., Finger, Palm, Toe and Sole prints –An introduction to physical Anthropology 3rd edition, Charles. C., Thomas Publisher, 581-5821, 1960.  Hooton E.A., Up from Ape The Mac. Millan company, 2nd edition , New York, 1960.  Shaha K. C., Dermatoglyphics Journal of Indian Medical Association, vol.54, 248, 1970.  Pal G. P & Routal R., Dermatoglyphics studies of Gujrati Hindus, Journal of Anatomical Society of India, vol.31, 30, 1982.  Achs R. and Harper R., Dermatoglyphics, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol, vol. 101,1006-1023, 1968.  Mukherjee D.P. a Shaha K.C., Dermatoglyphics in normal Bengalee population Journal of Indian Medical Association, vol. 54, 405-511, 1970.  Penrose L.S and Ohara P. T., The development of epidermal ridges, Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 10, 201-208, 1973.  Verma K. C et. al., Dermatoglyphics in Psoriasis Indian Journal of Dermatology venerol leprosy, vol.4, 28-30, 1980.  Schaumann B. And Alter M., Dematoglyphics in Medical Disorders, Springler –Verlag, New York, Heidelberg, Berlin, 1976.  Vaidya R. B., Dermatoglyphics in Schizophrenia, Dissertation for M. S. Anatomy, submitted to Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 1979.  Kumar S. et al., Dermatoglyphics in healthy Indian children, Indian Journal of Pedriatics, vol.41, 249-256, 1974.  S Kumar, JM Kaul, BK Dhaon, KK Jain .Dermatoglyphics in congenital talipus equinovarus, Proceedings of Anatomical society of India, 63:44, 1994.  Pratima R. Kulkarni, K.K. Gaikwad, Vaishali V. Inamdar, D. B. Devarshi, S. L. Tungikar, Shailesh Kulkarni J.Anat.Soc. India 55 (1) 50-51, 2006.
Nikhil N. Tambe, Rajesh B. Goel
Abstract: With the decline of communicable diseases, injuries are becoming one of the highest causes for death in India. According to WHO’s World Health Report, injury will be 3rd leading cause of death in India by year 2020. Health and safety is a fundamental right of every human being and it can only be maintained and improved if preventive measures are taken against risk factors. Ideas presented in different conceptual frameworks for injury prevention were studied and put together to create an action plan for injury prevention in India targeted at different age groups. This study gives an age-specific approach towards finding out risk factors and devises interventions. It targets wide spectrum of population i.e. from foetus to old age and is suitable for all kinds of unintentional injuries. The present statistics of injuries in India suggests that it is high time to take prompt action in field of injury prevention. This study is an initiative towards subject of injury prevention in India and highlights the method to do so. This study will not only create awareness among public with regards to injury prevention but also help government devise effective policies and legislations.
 Anderson R, Menckel E. ‘On the prevention of accidents and injuries – a comparative analysis of conceptual frameworks’ Accid, Anal. And Prev.27:757-768.1995  Curry P, Ramiah R, Vavila MS. Current trends and update on injury prevention. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci; 1:57-65. 2011  Dandona R, Kumar GA, Ivers R et al. Characteristics of non-fatal injuries in rural India. Inj Prev 16:166-171.2010  Runyan CW. Introduction: back to the future- revisiting Haddon’s conceptualization of injury epidemiology and prevention. Epidemiologic Reviews 25(1):60-64. 2003  Peek-Asa C, Zwerling C. Role of Environmental interventions in injury control and prevention. Epidem Rev 25(1):77-89. 2003  Shope JT. Influences on youthful driving behaviour and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes. Inj Prev 12: 9-14. 2006  Geller ES, Berry TD et al. A conceptual framework for developing and evaluating behaviour change interventions for injury control. Health education and research 5(2):125-137, 1990  Gielen AC, Sleet D. Application of behaviour change theories and methods to injury preventionEpidem Rev 25(1):65-76.2003  Gulliver P, Begg D. Personality factors as predictors of persistent risky driving behaviour and crash involvement among young adults. Inj Prev; 13: 376-381. 2007  Weiss et al. Fetal death due to maternal trauma. JAMA 286(15): 1863. 2001  Blakemore T. Examining potential risk factors, pathways and processes associated with childhood injury in the longitudinal study of Australian children. Australian Govt. Dept of FaCSIA. 2006  Songer T et al. Core competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention and Control. Am J Public Health; 99(4): 600-606. 2009, April  Jagnoor et al. Road traffic injury prevention: a public health challenge. Ind J of community medicine; 31(3):129-131. 2006, September.  G Gururaj and Bangalore Road Safety and Injury Prevention Program Collaborators Group. Bangalore Road Safety and Injury Prevention Program: Results and learning 2007 - 2010, Publication No. 81,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, 2011  WHO project ICP DPR 001. Injury prevention and control in South east Asia region- Report of an inter country consultation, Bangkok. 2006, 23-26 January  Ministry of labour and employment, Govt of India. National Policy on safety health and environment at work place.  www.cdc.gov/injury/pdfs/Injuries_Violence_Worldwide.pdf  Injuries and violence in India: Facts and Figures by NIMHANS, Bangalore, 2011.  Bawa H, Joshi P et al. Interior Health: injury prevention environmental scan. BC Injury research and prevention unit, 2007 April.
Ashish Motewar, Mandar Tilak, Nikhil Bhamare
Abstract: Gallbladder Volvulus is a very rare pathology in a patient presenting to the emergency with acute abdominal pain with only 500 cases reported worldwide . The volvulus occurs along the axis of the cystic artery and cystic duct causing infarction and obstruction at the same time and if not diagnosed and treated promptly will lead to gangrenous perforation of the gall bladder, acute septic biliary peritonitis, morbidity and even mortality. Though it can occur in any age group most cases occur in elderly people with a female preponderance . There is no classical clinical as well as radiologic sign for prompt diagnosis. But if a high index of suspicion is maintained and prompt diagnostic laparoscopy is done this acute condition can be satisfactorily treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy with minimal intra operative difficulty and minimal post operative morbidity.
 Chung JC, Song OP, Kim HC. Gallbladder torsion diagnosed by MDCT and MRCP. Abdom Imaging, 35: 462-42 , 2010.  Stieber AC, Bauer JJ: Volvulus of the gallbladder. Am Jr Gastroenterol 1983, 78:96- 98. Issue yr 1983  Wendel AV: A case of floating gallbladder and kidney complicated by cholelithiasis with perforation of the gallbladder. Ann Surg., 27:199-202, 1898.  Tarhan OR, Barut I, Dinelek H: Gallbladder volvulus: review of the literature and report of a case. Turk J Gastroenterol; 17(3):209-211, 2006.  Kitagawa H, Nakada K, Enami T, Yamaguchi T, Kawaguchi F, Nakada M, Yamate N: Two cases of torsion of the gallbladder diagnosed preoperatively. J Paediatr Surg., 32(11):1567-1569, 1997.  Chilton CP, Mann CV: Torsion of the gallbladder in a nine-year old boy. J R Soc Med., 73(2):141-143, 1980.  Levene A. Acute torsion of the gallbladder. Br J Surg., 45: 338-40, 1958.  Tarhan O , Barut I , Dinelek H. Gallbladder volvulus : a review of the literature and a report of a case. Turk J Gastro-enterol., 17 (3): 209-211, 2006.  Ashby BS. Acute and recurrent torsion of the gall-bladder. Br J Surg., 52:182-4, 1965.  Safadi RR, Abu-Yousef MM, Farah AS, et al. Preoperative sonographic diagnosis of gallbladder torsion: report of two cases. J Ultrasound Med., 12: 296-8, 1993.  Aibe H, Honda H, Kuroiwa T, et al. Gallbladder torsion: case report. Abdom Imaging, 27: 51–53, 2002.  Usui M, Matsuda S, Suzuki H, Ogura Y. Preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder torsion by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Scand J Gastroenterol, 35: 218-22, 2000.  Lau WY, Fan ST, Wong SH. Acute torsion of the gallbladder in the aged:a re-emphasis on clinical diagnosis. Aust N Z J Surg., 52:492-4, 1982.  Nguyen T, Geraci A, Bauer JJ. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder volvulus. Surg Endosc., 9:519-2, 1995.
Meeta A. Burande, Amit R. Burande
Introduction: Nanoparticles are the particles of nanometer size that are used in various applications while stem cells are pluripotent cells having capacity to proliferate and differentiate in desired manner. Interaction of nanoparticles with stem cells i.e. stem cell nanotechnology has opened the new area of research and application in medical sciences. Objective: In this review we aimed to search the pharmacological aspect of nanoparticles in stem cells. Method: We searched pubmed, medline, google scholar and other online as well as offline data base with key words of nanoparticle, stem cells, nanotechnology to find the information. Articles were further sorted out regarding the availability of content. Only those articles, which were available by open access either abstract or full paper or both were included in the review. Result & Conclusion: We conclude the stem cell nanotechnology is upcoming branch of study in pharmacology. Different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynmic aspect of nanoparticles as nanodrug has to be explored before using them on wide scale. These data warrant the establishment of new area of studies i.e. Stem Cell Nanophrmaceutics to deal with nanodrugs.
 Tran DMD, Lin C, Ota BS, et al. Influence of nanoparticles on morphological differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Fertil Steril. 87:965–970;2007.  Azzazy H, Mansour M. In vitro diagnostic prospects of nanoparticles. Clin Chim Acta. 403:1–8; 2009  L. Ao, F. Gao, B. Pan, R. He, D. Cui, Anal. Chem. 78, 1104 (2006).  D. Cui, B. Pan, H. Zhang et al., Anal. Chem. 80, 7996 (2008).  Faraji AH, Wipf P. Nanoparticles in cellular drug delivery. Bioorg Med Chem. 17:2950–2962;2009.  Ju-Nam Y, Lead JR. Manufacured nanoparticles: An overview of their chemistry, interactions and potential environmental implications. Sci Total Environ. 400:396–414;2008.  I. Aurich, L. Mueller, H. Aurich et al., Gut 56(2), 405 ;2007.  W.R. Xu, X. Zhang, H. Qian et al., Exp. Biol. Med. 229(3), 623;2004.  J. Oswald, S. Boxberger, B. Jorgensen et al., Stem Cells 22(2),377;2004.  R.P. Gallegos, R.M. Bolman III, Card. Surg. Adult. 3(6), 1657; 2008.  T.J. Heino, T.A. Hentunen, Curr. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2(1), 131;2008.  R.R. Rao, S.L. Stice, Biol. Reprod. 71, 1772–1778;2004.  J. Yu, M.A. Vodyanik, K. Smuga-Otto et al., Science 318, 1917;2007.  K. Takahashi, S. Yamanaka, Cell 126, 663 ;2006  K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki et al., Cell 131, 861;2007.  H. Stuart, O.S. Morrison et al., Biomedicine: stem-cell competition. Nature 418, 25 ;2002.  Y.H. Jiang, B. Jahagirdar, R.L. Reinhardt et al., Nature 418(1), 41 ;2002.  Heymer A, Haddad D, Weber M, et al. Iron oxide labelling of human mesenchymal stem cells in collagen hydrogels for articular cartilage repair. Biomaterials.29:1473–1483;2008.  Shan L. FluidMAG iron nanoparticle-labeled mesenchymal stem cells for tracking cell homing to tumors. Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2004-2010.  Modi G, Pillay V, Choonara YE, et al. Nanotechnological applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Prog Neurobiol.88:272–285;2009.  Sanvicens N, Marco MP. Multifunctional nanoparticles – properties and prospects for their use in human medicine. Trends Biotechnol.26:425–433;2008.  Suh WH, Suh Y, Stucky GD. Multifunctional nanosystems at the interface of physical and life sciences. Nanotoday. 4:27–36;2009.  Delcroix GJ, Jacquart M, Lemaire L, et al. Mesenchymal and neural stem cells labeled with HEDP-coated SPIO nanoparticles: In vitro characterization and migration potential in rat brain. Brain Res. 1255:18–31;2009.  Huang D, Hsiao J, Chen Y, et al. The promotion of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 30:3645–3651;2009.  Park TH, Lee HJ, Kim JA, et al. Application of magnetic bio-nanoparticles to the control of stem cell behavior. Biotechnology. 131:S65; 2007.  Y. Jing, L.R. Moore, P.S. Williams et al., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 96,1139–1154 ;2007.  Conner SD, Schmid SL. Regulated portals of entry into the cell. Nature. 422:37–44;2003.  Ito A, Hibino E, Honda H, et al. A new methodology of mesenchymal stem cell expansion using magnetic nanoparticle. Biochemical and Engineering J. 20:119–125;2004.  B. Zuzana, J. Daniel, Z.Klara et al., Transplantation 85(1), 155;2008.  Liu K, Wang C, Cheng C, et al. Endocytic carboxylated nanodiamond for the labeling and tracking of cell division and differentiation in cancer and stem cells. Biomaterials. 30:4249–4259;2009.  Chung T, Wu S, Yao M, et al. The effect of surface charge on the uptake and biological function of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in 3T3-L1 cells and human mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials. 28:2959–2966;2007.  Huang D, Hung Y, Ko B, et al. Highly efficient cellular labeling of mesoporous nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells: Implication for stem cell tracking. FASEB J. 19:2014–2016;2005.  Huang D, Chung T, Hung Y, et al. Internalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles induces transient but not sufficient osteogenic signals in human mesenchymal stem cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 231:208–215;2008.  Shah DA, Kwon SJ, Bale SS, Banerjee A, Dordick JS, Kane RS. Biomaterials. Apr;32(12):3210-9;2011.  Chang J, Su H, Hsu S. The use of peptide-delivery to protect human adipose-derived adult stem cells from damage caused by the internalization of quantum dots. Biomaterials. 29:925–936;2008.  Chang J, Hsu S, Su H. The regulation of the gap junction of human mesenchymal stem cells through the internalization of quantum dots. Biomaterials. 30:1937–1946;2009.  Arbab AS, Wilson LB, Ashari P, et al. A model of lysosomal metabolism of dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles: Implications for cellular magnetic resonance imaging. NMR Biomed. 18:383–389; 2005.  Jing X, Yang L, Duan X, et al. In vivo MR imaging tracking of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle labeled, engineered, autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells following intra-articular injection. Joint Bone Spine.75:432–438;2008.  Wang L, Deng J, Wang J, et al. Superparamagnetic iron oxide does not affect the viability and function of adipose-derived stem cells, and superparamagnetic iron oxide–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging identifies viable cells. Magn Reson Imaging. 27:108–119;2009.  Y. Ohyabu, Z. Kaul, T. Yoshioka et al., Hum. Gene Ther. 20, 219; 2009.  I.L. Medintz, H.T. Uyeda, E.R. Goldman, H. Mattoussi, Nat. Mater. 4, 435 ;2005.  D. Yang, D. Cui, Chem. Asian J. 3, 2010 ;2008.  J. Lee, Y. Huh, Y. Jun, J. Seo, J. Jang, H. Song, S. Kim, E. Cho, H. Yoon, J. Suh, J. Cheon, Nat. Med. 13(1), 95 ;2007.  E. Sykova, P. Jenedelova, Neurodegener. Dis. 3(1), 62 ;2006.  Hoshino, K. Fujioka, N. Manabe, S. Yamaya, Y. Goto, M. Yasuhara, K. Yamamoto, Microbiol. Immunol. 49, 461 ;2005.  R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, I. Kanno, Nat. Photon. 1(9), 487;2007.  D.J. Maxwell, J. Bonde, D.A. Hess et al., Stem Cells 26, 517 ;2008.  T.M. Coyne, A.J. Marcusl, D. Woodbury et al., Stem Cells 24, 2483 ;2006.  Sykova E, Jendelova P. In vivo tracking of stem cells in brain and spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Research.161:367–383;2007.  Kea Y, Hu C, Jianga X, et al. In vivo magnetic resonance tracking of Feridex-labeled bone marrow-derived neural stem cells after autologous transplantation in rhesus monkey. J Neurosci Methods.179:45–50;2009.  Au K, Liao S, Lee Y, et al. Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.379:898–903;2009.  Lee K, Park C, Moon H, et al. Magnetic resonance tracking of multifunctional nanoparticle-labeled mouse mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. Current Applied Physics. 9(Suppl 1):S12–S14;2009.  Sathuluri RR, Yoshikawa H, Shimizu E, Saito M, Tamiya E. Gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering for noninvasive molecular probing of embryonic stem celldifferentiation. PLoS One. 6(8);2011  C.A. Crouse, B. Maruyama, R.J. Colorado, T. Back, A.R. Barron, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 7946 ;2008.  D. Cui, F. Tian, C.S. Ozkan, W. Mao, H. Gao, Toxicol. Lett. 155, 77;2005.  Wimpenny I, Markides H, El Haj AJ. Orthopaedic applications of nanoparticle-based stem cell therapies.Stem Cell Res Ther. Apr 19;3(2):13;2012.  N.R. Washburn, K.M. Yamada, C.G. Simon et al., Biomaterials 25, 1215;2004.  P. Clark, P. Connolly, A.S. Curtis et al., J. Cell Sci. 99(1), 73;1991.  Kostura L, Kraitchman DL, Mackay AM, et al. Feridex labeling of mesenchymal stem cells inhibits chondrogenesis but not adipogenesis or osteogenesis. NMR Biomed,17:513–517;2004.  Zhang P, Dai K, Yan S. Effects of naringin on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone mesenchymal stem cell. Eur J Pharmacol. 607:1–5;2009.  Shi X, Wang Y, Varshney RR, et al. In-vitro osteogenesis of synovium stem cells induced by controlled release of bisphosphate additives from microspherical mesoporous silica composite.Biomaterials.30:3996–4005;2009.  Jung Y, Chung Y, Kim SH, et al. In situ chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a TGF-b1 loaded fibrin– poly (lactide-caprolactone) nanoparticulate. Biomaterials.30:4657–4664;2009.  Oliveira JM, Sousa RA, Kotobuki N, et al. The osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured with dexamethasone-loaded carboxymethylchitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles. Biomaterials.30:804–813;2009.  M.J. Dalby, M.O. Riwhle, H.J. Johnstone et al., Tissue Eng. 8, 1099 ;2002.  G.R. Owen, J. Jackson, B. Chehroudi et al., Biomaterials 26, 7447;2005.  C.J. Wilson, B.E. Richard, E. Clegg et al., Tissue Eng. 11, 1;2005.  B. Haack, J. Reboud, S. Combe et al., Nanobiotechnology 1, 1551;2005.  T. Gabaya, E. Jakobsa, E. Ben-Jacobb, Y. Hanein, Physica A 350, 611 ;2005.  Y. Lu, S.C. Chen, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56, 1621;2004.  F. Gelain, D. Bottai, A. Vescovi et al., PLoS ONE 1, e119;2006.  D. Cui, H. Zhang, Z. Wang et al., ECS Trans. 13(1), 111;2008.  D. Shi, W. Wang, J. Lian, G.K. Liu, Z.Y. Dong, L.M. Wang, R.C. Ewing, Adv. Mater. 18, 189;2006.  X. You, R. He, F. Gao, J. Shao, B. Pan, D. Cui, Nanotechnology 18, 035701 ;2007.  D.H. Kim, S.H. Lee, K.N. Kim, K.M. Kim, I.B. Shim, Y.K. Lee, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 293, 287 ;2005.  A. Ito, K. Ino, T. Kobayashi, H. Honda, Biomaterials 26, 6185 ;2005.  M. Sincai, D. Ganga, M. Ganga, D. Argherie, D. Bica, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 293(2), 438;2005.  N. Morishita, H. Nakagami, R. Morishita et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 334, 1121;2005.  V.M. Tysseling-Mattiace, V. Sahni, K.L. Niece et al., J. Neurosci. 28, 3814;2008.  G.A. Silva, C. Czeisler, K.L. Niece et al., Science 27, 1352 ;2004.  Kubinová S, Syková E. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. Jun;19(3):144-56;2010.  S.E. Harding, N.N. Ali, M. Brito-Martins, J. Gorelik, Pharmacol. Ther. 113, 341;2007.  M.R. Kapadia, L.W. Chow, N.D. Tsihlis et al., J. Vasc. Surg. 47, 173;2008.  P. Jendelova´, V. Herynek, L. Urdzı´kova´ et al., J. Neurosci. Res. 76, 232 ;2004.  J. Terrovitis, M. Stuber, A. Youssef et al., Circulation 117, 1555;2008.  Oshima S, Ishikawa M, Mochizuki Y, Kobayashi T, Yasunaga Y, Ochi M, Enhancement of bone formation in an experimental bony defect using ferumoxide-labelled mesenchymal stromal cells and a magnetic targeting system. J Bone Joint Surg Br. Nov;92(11):1606-13;2010.  Hori J, Deie M, Kobayashi T, Yasunaga Y, Kawamata S, Ochi M. Articular cartilage repair using an intra-articular magnet and synovium-derived cells. J Orthop Res. Apr;29(4):531-8;2011.  Li YG, Wei JN, Lu J, Wu XT, Teng GJ. Labeling and tracing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for tendon-to-bone tunnel healing .Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. Dec;19(12):2153-8; 2011.  Ami D, Neri T, Natalello A, et al. Embryonic stem cell differentiation studied by FT-IR spectroscopy.Biochim Biophys Acta.1783:98–106;2008.  I.H. Park, P.H. Lerou, R. Zhao, H. Huo, G.Q. Daley, Nat. Protoc. 3, 1180 ;2008.  Ma K, Liao S, He L, Lu J, Ramakrishna S, Chan CK. Effects of nanofiber/stem cell composite on wound healing in acute full-thickness skin wounds. Tissue Eng Part A. May;17(9-10):1413-24;2011.  Bader A, Ebert S, Giri S, Kremer M, Liu S, Nerlich A, Günter CI, Smith DU, Machens HG. Skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure of deep second-degree  scalding injuries via combined expression of the EPO receptor and beta common receptor by local subcutaneous injection of nanosized rhEPO. Int J Nanomedicine.7:1227-37;2012.  N. Nakatsuji, F. Nakajima, K. Tokunaga, Nat. Biotechnol. 26,739;2008.  S.A. Wood, N.D. Allen, J. Rossant, A. Auerbach, A. Nagy, Nature 365, 87 ;1993.  D. Cui, F. Tian, C.R. Coyer et al., J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 1639 ;2007.  N.S.W. Kam, Z. Liu, H. Dai, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 577 ;2006.  B. Pan, D. Cui. Advance and application prospect of dendrimers, in Nanotechnology research developments, ed. by R. Jimenez-Contreras (Springer, New York), 7–95;2008  J.W. Lee, B.K. Kim, H. Kim, S.C. Han, W.S. Shin, S.H. Jin, Macromolecules 39, 2418;2006.  B. Pan, D. Cui, Y. Shen, C.S. Ozkan, F. Gao, R. He, Q. Li, P. Xu, T. Huang, Cancer Res. 67, 8156;2007.  B. Pan, D. Cui, P. Xu, T. Huang, Q. Li, R. He, F. Gao, J. Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 1, 13;2007.  N.W.S. Kam, H. Dai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 6021;2005.  N.W.S. Kam, T.C. Jessop, P.A. Wender, H. Dai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6850;2004.  S.W. Han, C. Nakamura, I. Obataya et al., Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2120;2005.  G.S. Zhou, Z.Y. Su, Y.R. Cai, Y.K. Liu et al., Biomed. Mater. Eng. 17, 387;2007.  V. Lovat, D. Pantarotto, L. Lagostena, B. Cacciari, M. Grandolfo, M. Righi, G. Spalluto, M. Prato, L. Ballerini, Nano Lett. 5, 1107;2005.  A. Nimmagadda, K. Thurston, M.U. Nollert, P.S. McFetridge, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 76A, 614;2006.  Chen XA, Zhang LJ, He ZJ, Wang WW, Xu B, Zhong Q, Shuai XT, Yang LQ, Deng YB. Plasmid-encapsulated polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine nanoparticles for gene delivery into rat mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Nanomedicine 6:843-53;2011.  Cavalcanti A, Shirinzadeh B, Freitas RA, et al. Nanorobot architecture for medical target identification. Nanotechnology.19:15103–15118;2008.  Allen TM, Cullis PR. Drug delivery systems: Entering the mainstream. Science.303:1818–1822;2004.  Ronne Wee Yeh Yeo, Ruenn Chai Lai, Bin Zhang, Soon Sim Tan, Yijun Yin, Bao Ju Teh, Sai Kiang Lim. Mesenchymal stemcell: An efficient mass producer of exosomes for drug delivery , Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Available online 7 July 2012  D. Metcalf, Stem Cells 25, 2390;2007.  S.V. Liu, Stem Cells Dev. 17, 391;2008.  S.V. Liu, Log. Biol. 7(1), 63–65;2007.  M. Pera, Nature 451(1), 135;2008.  Braydich-Stolle L, Hussain S, Schlager JJ, et al. In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells. Toxicol Sci.88:412–419; 2005.  Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Li N. Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science.311:622–627;2006.  Hussain SM, Hess KL, Gearhart JM, et al. In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells.Toxicol In Vitro. 19:975–983;2005.  Jia G, Wang H, Yan L, et al. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials: single-wall nanotube, multi-wall nanotube, and fullerene. Environ Sci Technol. 39:1378–1383;2005.  El-Ansary A, Al-Daihan S. Review article on the toxicity of therapeutically used nanoparticles: An overview. J Toxicol. Epub 2009 Jan 25.  Staggers N, McCasky T, Brazelton N, et al. Nanotechnology: The coming revolution and its implications for consumers, clinicians, and informatics. Nurs Outlook.56:268–274;2008.  Abraham AM, Kannangai R, Sridharan G. Nanotechnology: A new frontier in virus detection in clinical practice. Indian J Microbiol. 2008;26:297–301. Gao J, Xu B. Applications of nanomaterials inside cells. Nanotoday. 4:37–51;2009.  Nikulainen T, Palmberg C. Transferring science-based technologies to industry. Does nanotechnology make a difference? Technovation.30:3–11;2010.  I.L. Weissman, N. Engl. J. Med. 346(8), 1576 ;2002.  A. Solanki, J.D. Kim, K.B. Lee, Nanomedicine 3(4), 567–578;2008.
Abstract: An attempt has been made to check the quality of groundwater of Sukhana river sub basin of Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India for drinking and irrigation purposes. Thirty five groundwater samples were collected from different dugwells and borewells. The quality assessment is made through the estimation of pH., EC, TDS, total hardness as CaCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, CO32−, HCO3− and SO42− and Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, sodium soluble percentage and residual sodium carbonate were calculated. The value of TDS, Cl− and SO4 − ion concentration is within the limits in majority of the samples. The excess amount of Ca++, Mg++, TH and Na+ in the groundwater is due to anthropogenic factors and geological characteristics of the aquifer. The correlation of the analytical data has been attempted by plotting different graphical representations such as Wilcox and US Salinity Laboratory for the classification of water, and results show that most of the samples are fit for irrigation
 Aher K.R., Groundwater Quality Studies of Chikalthana area of Aurangabad, Ph.D thesis submitted to Dr.B.A.Marathwada University, Aurangabad (MS) India, 2012.  APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20ndEd.). Washington D.C.: American Public and Health Association, 2002.  Andre, L., Franceschi, M., Pouchan, P., & Atteia, O., Using geochemical data and modeling to enhance the understanding of groundwater flow in a regional deep aquifer, Aquitain Basin, south-west of France. Journal of Hydrology, 305, 40–62, 2005.  BIS, Bureau of Indian Standards IS: 10500, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi, India, 1991.  Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A., Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1979.  Deshpande, S.M. and Aher K.R., Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Chikalthana industrial area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. Bionano Frontier, vol.4 (1) 157-161, 2011.  Deshpande S.M. and Aher K.R., Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agriculture use in Parts of Vaijapur, District Aurangabad, MS, India, Res.J.Chem.Sci., Vol. 2(1), 25-31, 2012.  Domenico P.A., Concepts and models in groundwater hydrology.nMcGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.  EEC (European Economic Communitites), Richtlinic des Rates Vem., 15.7 1980 liber die qualitat Von Wasser fur den menschlichen Gebrauch. Amtslelatt der Europaischen gemeinschaft vom. 30-8-1980, no. L 229, pp. 11-29, 1980.  Edmunds, W. M., Renewable and non-renewable groundwater in semi-arid regions. Developments in Water Science, 50, 265–280, 2003.  Kumar M, Kumari K, Ramanathan AL, Saxena R., A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two agriculture dominated districts of Punjab, India. J Environ Geol 53:553–574, 2007  Matthess G., The properties of groundwater. Wiley, New York, p 498, 1982.  Richards, L.A., Diagnosis on improvement of saline and alkali soils, U.S.D.A., Handbook no.60. Agri. Handb. U.S. Dep. Agric. p. 160, 1954.  Reddy, L., Chandra Sekhar., Deshpande, S.M., Reddy, K.V., Ramana and Aher, K.R., Hydro Geochemical Processes in the Groundwater Environment of Vemula area, Kadapa District, South India, International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, Vol. 3 (1) pp 18-24, 2012.  Shanmugam Packialakshmi and Ambujam N. K., A hydrochemical and geological investigation on the Mambakkam mini watershed, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, Environ Monit Assess, DOI 10.1007/s10661-011-2189-1, 2011.  Singh Kuldip., Hundal H. S. and Singh Dhanwinder, Geochemistry and assessment of hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater in the southern part of Bathinda district of Punjab, northwest India, Environ Earth Sci, 64:1823–1833 DOI 10.1007/s12665-011-0989-9, 2011.  Schuh WM, Klinekebiel DL, Gardner JC, Meyar RF (1997) Tracer and nitrate movements to groundwater in the Norruem Great Plains. J Environ Qual 26:1335–1347, 1997.  Trivedi, R.K. and Goel,P.K., Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Environmental Publications Karad, India, 215, 1984.  Toth J., The role of regional gravity flow in the chemical and thermal evolution of groundwater. In: Proceedings of the first Canadian/American conference on hydrogeology, Banff, Alta, 1984.  U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff, Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Hand Book No. 60, 160p, 1954.  Wilcox LV, Classification and use of irrigation waters. USDA, Circular 969, Washington, DC, USA, 1955.
Meeta A. Burande, Amit R. Burande
Context: There are different probiotic preparations are available in Indian market, but the efficacy & superiority over each other or ORS & zinc only is not established with certainty. At the same time whatever information is available none is conducted over Indian children so far. Hence, there is a need to study the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in diarrhoea in Indian children. Aims: To compare the efficacy of ORS + Zn verses ORS + Zn + Probiotics Saccharomyces boulardii strain in treatment of acute diarrhoea in Indian children. Settings and Design: prospective, parallel, single blind randomized controlled clinical trial in Hospital attached with Medical College. Methods and Material: 75 children up to 5 years of age suffering from acute diarrhoea (three or more unformed stools within last 24 hrs) of less than 48 hours with CBC and stool microscopy negative for infection. All children were given ORS ad lib till resolution of diarrhoea and Zinc 10 mg per day in child of less than 6 month and 20 mg per day for child above 6 month a day for 14 days. While intervention arm (n=35) were also given Saccharomyces Boulardii 250 mg orally two times a day for 5 days. Main Outcomes Measured were duration of diarrhoea and duration of vomiting in days. Statistical analysis used: Z test and student t test Results: Mean duration of diarrhoea for study group was 3.4 days + 1.4 days and for control group was 5.5 days + 2.1 days (Z value 4.9). Average time of recovery from vomiting was 2.5 +1.2 days for study group & for control were 3.3 + 1.2 days (t17 = 3.3, P< 0.01). Conclusions: Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute diarrhoea significantly reduces the duration of diarrhoea as well as vomiting.
1. Guandalini S. Treatment of acute diarrhoea in the new millennium. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;30:486-9:2000. 2. Zimmerman CM, Bresee JS, Parashar UD, Riggs TL, Holman RC, Glass RI. Cost of diarrhoea-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in an insured population of young children in the United States. Pediatr Infect dis J;20:14-9:2001. 3. Szajewska H, Setty M, Mrukowicz J, Guandalini S. Probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in children: hard and not-so-hard evidence of efficacy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;42:454-75:2006. 4. Young J. European Market developments in prebiotic and probiotic containing foodstuffs. Br J Nutr;80:S231-3:1998. 5. Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, McCormick JK. Potential uses of Probiotics in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev;16:658-72:2003. 6. Szajewska H, Hoekstra JH, Sandhu B. Management of acute gastroenteritis in Europe and the impact of the new recommendations: a multicenter study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;30:522-7:2000. 7. Allen SJ, Okoko B, Martinez E, Gregorio G, Dans LF. Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev;:CD003048:2004. 8. Roberto Berni Canani, Pia Cirillo, Gianluca Terrin, Luisa Cesarano, Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Anna De Vincenzo et al. Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations BMJ.;335:340:2007. 9. Kurugöl Z, Koturoğlu G. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica;94:44–47:2005. 10. Whelan K, Judd PA, Preedy VR, Taylor MA. Covert assessment of concurrent and construct validity of a chart to characterize fecal output and diarrhoea in patients receiving enteral nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.;32:160-168:2008. 11. Villarruel G, Rubio D M, Lopez F, Cintioni J, Gurevech R, Romero G, Vandenplas Y. Saccharomyces boulardii in acute childhood diarrhoea: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Acta Paediatrica;96:538–541:2007. 12. Htwe K, Yee KS, Tin M, Vandenplas Y. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in Myanmar children: a randomized controlled study Am J Trop Med Hyg;78:214-6:2008. 13. Raza S, Graham SM, Allen SJ. et al. Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute nonbloody diarrhoea in Pakistan. Ped Infect Dis J. ;14:107–111:1995. 14. Grandy G, Medina M, Soria R, Terán CG, Araya M. Probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in Bolivian children. BMC Infect Dis. ;10:253:2010. 15. McFarland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol.;16:2202-22:2010 16. Shinjini B, Seema A, Piyush G. Management of acute diarrhoea: From evidence to Policy. Indian Pediatr.;47:215-217:2010
S. R. Chavan, M. A. Kathole, A. S. Katti, N. G. Herekar
Abstract: The exact dimensions of sella turcica are an important consideration in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of diseases related to pituitary gland and brain. Present study was aimed to present a set of baseline measurements of sella turcica by studying the various dimensions by radiographs In the present study, lateral radiographs of skulls of four hundred and forty seven subjects of known age (between 13 to 55 years) and sex (two hundred and thirty seven males; two hundred and ten females) were studied. The various parameters of sella turcica were studied in present study these were greatest anteroposterior diameter, depth & area of sella turcica It was found that greatest anteroposterior diameter of sella turcica, depth of sella turcica showed statistically no significant difference in their mean values of males and females indicating no sexual dimorphism. The area also showed no sexual dimorphism. Careful study of these parameters can help in radiological detection of pituitary tumours, suprasellar or parasellar tumours etc. The normal dimensions of sella turcica and shape can be used as reference values for evaluating various pathological (clinical) conditions related to sella turcica in Western Maharastra population.
1. RL Fisher and GH. Di Chiro. The small sella turcica, American Journal of Roentgen, 91: 996-1008, 1964. 2. M. Andredaki, A. Koumantanou, D. Dorotheou and D. J. Halazonetis. A cephalometric morphometric study of the sella turcica. The European Journal of Orthodontics, 29(5): 449-456, 2007. 3. David Sutton. Textbook of Radiology and Imaging. Seventh Edition. Churchill Livingstone, (11):1617, 1626, 2003. 4. Joplin G. f. and Fraser R. (1960), Ciba Foundation Colloquia on endocrinology13, 14. Quoted by Oon C. L., 1963. 5. Oon C. L. The size of pituitary fossa in adults. British journal of Radiology. 36: 294 – 299, 1963. 6. Taveras J.M. and Wood E.H. Diagnostic Radiology. Second edition. The Williams Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1: 65-90, 1976. 7. Schuller A.: The sella turcica, American journal of roentgenol, 16: 336 – 340, 1926. 8. Mahaian B. K. Methods in Biostatistics. 6th edition, Jaypee Brothers. pp: 126-129, Reprint 2004. 9. Isadore Meschan. An Atlas of Anatomy Basic to Radiology; W B Saunders, Philadelphia, 343 – 348, 1975 10. Jewett C. H. American Journal of Roentgenol. (1920); 7: 352.Quoted by C. L. Oon., 1963.17 11. Silverman F N. Roentgen standards for size of the pituitary fossa from infancy through adolescence. American Journal of Roentgenology, 78: 451-460, 1957. 12. B. N. Lal, P. N. Tondon, S. K. Ghosh and G. N. Agrawal, Radiological study of normal sella turcica. Indian journal of Radiology 19/29: 84-90, 1965. 13. G. N. Agrawal, G. B. Newton, Radiologiacal Study of Normal Sella Turcica in Indians. Journal Indian M. A., 51 no.7: 519-522, 1968. 14. V. K. Srivastava. Normal Anatomy of Sella Turcica in Indian Subjects. Indian Journal of Radiology, 43: 102-106, 1989. 15. H F hare, E Silveus and M I. Smedal Roentgenologic Diagnosis of Pituitary Tumours. Radiology (1949); 52: 193-198. Quoted by Bernard et al and Silverman, 1957. 16. Haas LL. The size of the sella turcica by age and sex. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine, 72: 754–761, 1954. 17. Joplin G. f. and Fraser R. (1960), Ciba Foundation Colloquia on endocrinology13, 14. Quoted by Oon C. L., 1963.
Usha Patil, Surekha Vaidya, Smita Jore, Meena Parekh, M.S. Patwardhan
Aim and Objectives: To study student’s views on various teaching methods used at present and to make necessary improvements in teaching learning methods after analysis of feedback for better understanding of the subjects.
 General Medical Council (U.K.), Tomorrow’s Doctors, Samoa Medical Journal. October 2010  Implementation of integrated learning programme in neurosciences during 1st year of traditional medical course – perception of students & family – Sharmishta Ghosh, B.M.C. Medical education, Sept. 2008
Vivek P. Bhange, SPM. Prince William, A.N.Vaidya, A.R.Chokhandre
Abstract: Green waste includes foliage, plant residues, fallen flowers, garden refuse, leaf litter, cut grass, residues of pruning, weeds and other organic matter discarded from gardens and greeneries but exclude organic waste of the type obtained from municipal collections. These green wastes would land in dumping sites, or will be burned, if not collected and processed contributing to the large scale contamination of land, water and air. Leaves accumulating in the urban and suburban locations such as sidewalks, lawns, and playgrounds are not only an unseemly sight but adds to the overall problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. In India and several other countries, foliage is often piled-up and set on ﬁre. The resulting ash returns some of the NPK content of the foliage to the soil but much of nitrogen, phosphorous, and organic carbon gets lost. The burning of leaves also adds to air pollution and global warming. Green waste when decomposes in soil may release methane and foul odors, before getting converted into humus. However green waste can be a potential resource for energy and other value added products, if properly processed. The present review aims at summarizing different processing options for green waste towards energy production and value added product generation. Green waste is mostly dealt with aerobic treatment (composting), anaerobic treatments, incineration, biomass briquetting, cellulosic ethanol from biomass, biohydrogen production, bioplastics etc.
 Tai, Hua-Shan., & He, Wei-Hsiung, A novel composting process for plant wastes in Taiwan military barracks, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51, 408–417, 2007.  Singh, Y., Waste biomass to energy, Environment and waste management; 2010. www.wealthywaste.com/waste-biomass-to-energy  Yu, Jian., & Stahl, Heiko.,Microbial utilization and biopolyester synthesis of bagasse hydrolysates, Bioresource Technology, 99 (17), 8042-8048, 2008.  Gajalakshmi, S., Ramasamy, E.V.,& Abbasi, S. A., Composting–vermicomposting of leaf litter ensuing from the trees of mango (Mangifera indica),Bioresource Technology, 96, 1057–1061, 2005.  Singh Jasvinder, & Gu Sai, Biomass conversion to energy in India—A critique, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 1367–1378, 2010.  Wyman, C.E., & Goodman, B.J., Biotechnology for production of fuels, chemicals,and materials from biomass, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 39, 39–59, 1993.  Jacobus P. H., & Van Wyk,.Biotechnology and the utilization of biowaste as a resource for bioproduct development, Trends in Biotechnology,19, 5; 2001.  Cofie Olufunke., & A. Adams, Bradford Organic Waste Reuse for Urban Agriculture. Case study of Ouagadougou city in Burkina Faso, 2006.  Haung, G.F., Fang, M., Wu, Q.T., Zhou, L.X., Liao, X.D., & Wong, J.W.C., Co-composting of pig manure with leaves, Environmental technology, 22, 1203-1212, 2001.  Komilis, Dimitris P., & Ham, Robert K., The effect of lignin and sugars to the aerobic decomposition of solid wastes, Waste Management, 23, 419–423, 2003.  Cheung, H.N.B., Huang, G.H., & Yu, H.,Microbial-growth inhibition during composting of food waste: Effects of organic acids, Bioresource Technology,101, 5925-5934, 2010.  Barrington, S., Choiniere, D., Trigui, M., & Knight, W., Effect of carbon source on compost nitrogen and carbon losses, Bioresource Technology, 83, 189–194, 2002.  Barrington, S., Choiniere, D., Trigui, M., & Knight, W.,Compost convective airflow under passive aeration. Bioresource Technology, 86, 259–266, 2003.  Bari, Q. H., & Koenig, A, Effect of air recirculation and reuse on composting of organic solid waste. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 33, 93–111, 2001.  Chanakya, H. N., Ramachandra, T. V., Guruprasad, M., & Devi Vinuta,Micro-treatment options for components of organic fraction of MSW in residential areas. Environ Monit Assess, DOI:10.1007/s10661-007-9711-5, 2007.  Rihani, Mohammed., Malamis, Dimitri., Bihaoui, Bouchra., Etahiri, Samira., Loizidou, Maria.,& Assobhei, Omar., In-vessel treatment of urban primary sludge by aerobic composting, Bioresource Technology, 101(15), 5988-5995, 2010.  Kumar, Mathava., Ou, Yan-Liang., & Lin, Jih-Gaw, Co-composting of greenwaste and food at low C/N ratio, Waste management, 30 (4), 602-609, 2010.  Kalamdhad, Ajay S., Singh, Yatish K., Ali, Muntjeer., Khwairakpam,& Meena.,Kazmi, A.A.,.Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves, Bioresource Technology,100, 6442–6450, 2009.  Gajalakshmi, S., & Abbasi, S. A., Neem leaves as a source of fertilizer-cum-pesticide vermicompost. Bioresource Technology, 92, 291–296, 2004.  Wong, J. W. C., Mak, K. F., Chan, N. W., Lam, A., Fang, M., Zhou, L. X., Wu, Q. T., & Liao, X. D., Co-composting of soybean residues and leaves in Hong Kong, Bioresource Technology,76, 99–106, 2001.  Compost Guide. Tips for home composting http://compostguide.com/compost-materials/  CPHEEO Manual on municipal solid waste management. Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, New Delhi, 2000.  Alfayez Eng.khalid., Biological Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste. Training – Biogas Project.March-December, 2003.  Shiralipour, Aziz., Dennis, B. Mcconnel.,& Wayne, H. Smith, Uses and benefits of MSW compost: a review and an assessment, Biomass and Bioenergy, 3, 267-279, 1992.  Jagadabhi Padma, Shanthi., Kaparaju, Prasad.,& Rintala, Jukka.,Two-stage anaerobic digestion of tomato, cucumber, common reed and grass silage in leach-bed reactors and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, Bioresource Technology,102 (7) , 4726-4733, 2011.  Kaparaju, Prasad., Serrano, María., & Angelidaki, Irini., Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor, Applied Energy, 87(12), 3779-3783, 2010.  Prochnow, A., Heiermann, M., Plöchl, M., Linke, B., Idler, C., Amon, T.,& Hobbs, P.J., Bioenergy from permanent grassland–A review: 1.Biogas, Bioresource Technology,100 (21), 4931-4944, 2009.  Lehtomaki, A., Huttunen, S., Lehtinen, T.M., & Rintala, J.A., Anaerobic digestion of grass silage in batch leach bed processes for methane production, Bioresource Technology, 99 (8), 3267-3278, 2008.  Parawira, W., Murto, M., Zvauya, R.,& Mattiasson, B., Anaerobic batch digestion of solid potato waste alone and in combination with sugar beet leaves, Renewable Energy, 29 (11), 1811-1823, 2004.  Yu, H. W., Samani, Z., Hanson, A., & Smith, G.,Energy recovery from grass using two-phase anaerobic digestion, Waste Management, 22, 1-5, 2002.  Sharma, Archana., Unni Bala G.,& Singh, H. Devendra., A novel fed-batch digestion system for biomethanation of plant biomasses, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 87 (5), 678-682, 1999.  Jagadish, K.S., Chanakya, H.N., Rajabapaiah, P., & Anand, V.,Plug flow digestors for biogas generation from leaf biomass, Biomass and Bioenergy,14 (5-6), 415-423, 1998.  Gunaseelan, Nallathambi V., Anaerobic digestion of gliricidia leaves for biogas and organic manure, Biomass, 17(1), 1-11, 1988.  Ghosh, S., Henry, M. P., & Christopher, R. W.,Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion, Biomass, 6, 257-269, 1985.  Gunaseelan, Nallathambi V., Anaerobic digestion of biomass for methane production: a review, Biomass and Bioenergy, 13, 83-114, 1997.  Veeken, Adrie., & Hamelers, Bert, Effect of temperature on hydrolysis rates of selected biowaste components, Bioresource Technology,69, 249-254, 1999.  Klaus Fricke., Heike Santen., & Rainer Wallmann., Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment, Waste Management,25,799–810, 2005.  Bhattacharya, S. C., Leon Augustus M., & Rahman Md. Mizanur., A Study on Improved Biomass Briquetting. Energy for Sustainable Development, 6(2), 67-71, 2002.  Felfli Felix Fonseca., Mesa P Juan M.., Rocha, Jose´ Dilcio., Filippetto Daniele., Luengo, Carlos A.,& Pippo, Walfrido Alonso.,Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35 (1), 236-242, 2011.  Yumak, Hasan., Ucar, Tamer.,& Seyidbekiroglu, Nesim, Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source, Biomass and Bioenergy, 34 (5), 630-636, 2010.  Ma, Yongliang., Xu, Kangfu., & Hao, Jiming.,An Experimental Study on Biomass Coal Briquetting Process. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. Kyoto, Japan, pp.1829-1832,1 – 4 October, 2002.  Finell, Michael., Nilsson, Calle., Olsson, Rolf., Agnemo, Roland.,& Svensson, Stefan.,Briquetting of fractionated reed canary-grass for pulp production. Industrial Crops and Products,16 (3), 185-192, 2002.  Yaman, S., SahanSahan, M., Haykiri-Acma H., Sesen, K.,& Kucukbayrak, S.,Fuel briquettes from biomass–lignite blends,Fuel Processing Technology, 72 (1),1-8, 2001.  Paulrud, Susanne., & Nilsson Calle, Briquetting and combustion of spring-harvested reed canary-grass: effect of fuel composition, Biomass and Bioenergy, 20 (1), 25-35, 2001.  Moral, Nawsher Ali,. Briquetting of Biomass in Bangladesh.In: Renewable energy: the energy for the 21st century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI, Brighton, pp2402-2405,1-7 July, 2000.  Sunomi, IIc. High Productivity Solutions for the North American Renewable Energy Market, Benefits of Biomass Briquettes; http://www.sunomi-llc.com/benefits.html  Toan, Pham Khanh., Cuong, Nguyen Duc., & Leon Augustus M., Activities and Achievements of a Biomass Briquetting Project in Vietnam, 2005.  Prasad, S., Singh, Anoop.,& Joshi, H. C., Ethanol as an alternative fuel from agricultural, industrial and urban residues, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 50 (1), 1-39, 2007.  Ntaikou, I., Antonopoulou, G., & Lyberatos, G., Biohydrogen Production from Biomass and Wastes via Dark Fermentation: A Review, Waste Biomass Valor, 1, 21–39, 2010.  Sun, Y., & Cheng J.,Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review, Bioresource Technology, 83, 1–11, 2002.  Jutakanoke, Rumpa., Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun., Tolieng, Vasana., Kitpreechavanich, Vichien., Srinorakutara, Teerapatr.,& Akaracharanya, Ancharida.,Sugarcane leaves: pretreatment and ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biomass and Bioenergy, 39,283-289, 2012.  Xu, Jiele., Wang Ziyu.,& Cheng Jay J.,Bermuda grass as feedstock for biofuel production: A review. Bioresource Technology, 102 (17), 7613-7620, 2011.  Romero-Anaya, A.J., Molina, A., Garcia, P., Ruiz-Colorado, A.A., Linares-Solano, A., & Salinas-Martínez de Lecea C., Phosphoric acid activation of recalcitrant biomass originated in ethanol production from banana plants, Biomass and Bioenergy, 35 (3), 1196-1204, 2011.  Gabhane, Jagdish., William, S.P.M. Prince., Vaidya, Atul Narayan., Mahapatra, Kalyani.,& Chakrabarti, Tapan., Influence of heating source on the efficacy of lignocellulosic pretreatment – A cellulosic ethanol perspective, Biomass and Bioenergy, 35 (1), 96-102, 2011.  Behera, Shuvashish., Kar, Shaktimay Mohanty., Rama, Chandra., & Ray, Ramesh Chandra.,Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca- alginate matrices. Applied Energy, 87 (1), 96-100, 2010.  Kaparaju Prasad., Serrano María., Thomsen Anne Belinda., Kongjan Prawit., & Angelidaki Irini.,Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept, Bioresource Technology, 100 (9), 2562-2568, 2009.  Felix, Erika., & Tilley, David R., Integrated energy, environmental and financial analysis of ethanol production from cellulosic switchgrass, Energy, 34 (4), 410-436, 2009.  Hamelinck, Carlo N., Hooijdonk, Geertje van., & Faaij, Andre PC., Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: techno-economicperformance in short-, middle- and long-term, Biomass and Bioenergy,28 (4),384–410, 2005.  Cellulosic Ethanol, Research Report, July 2007. http://www.moraassociates.com/publications/0707%20Cellulosic%20Ethanol.pdf  Jurgen,Lorcks..From Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR),publicationsHofplatz 1 • 18276 Gülzow • Germany [email protected] • www.fnr.de,Bioplastics,1-24, 2006.  Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J., Partal, P., García-Morales, M., & Gallegos, C., Development of highly-transparent protein/starch-based bioplastics, Bioresource Technology,101 (6), 2007-2013; 2010.  Grinning Planet. http://www.grinningplanet.com/articles/trash-recycling/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-bioplastics.htm  PRO EUROPE, Fact sheet on bioplastics, Packing recovery organization Europe, 2009.  Winter, C.J., Into the hydrogen energy economy—milestones, Inter. J. of Hydrog Energy, 30, 681-685, 2005.  Armor, J.N.,The multiple roles for catalysis in the production of H2,Applied Catalysis A: General,176, 159-176, 1999.  Keskin Tugba., Hallenbeck Patrick C.,Hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes using single-stage photofermentation,Bioresource Technology, 112,131-136, 2012.  Cui, Maojin., & Shen, Jiaquan, Effects of acid and alkaline pretreatments on the biohydrogen production from grass by anaerobic dark fermentation ,International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37(1), 1120-1124, 2012.  Nasirian, Nima., Almassi, Morteza, Minaei, Saeid.,& Widmann Renatus.,Development of a method for biohydrogen production from wheat straw by dark fermentation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 36 (1), 411-420, 2011.  Foglia Domenico,., Ljunggren, Mattias., Wukovits, Walter., Friedl, Anton., Zacchi, Guido., Urbaniec, Krzysztof., & Markowski, Mariusz., Integration studies on a two-stage fermentation process for the production of biohydrogen, Journal of Cleaner Production, 18,72-80, 2010.  Cui, Maojin., Yuan, Zhuliang., Zhi, Xiaohua., Wei, Liling., & Shen Jianquan., Biohydrogen production from poplar leaves pretreated by different methods using anaerobic mixed bacteria. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,35(9), 4041-4047, 2010.  Ozkan, Leyla., Erguder, Tuba H., & Demirer, Goksel N., Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes, Waste Management, 30 (5),792-798, 2010.  Sarkar, Susanjib.,& Kumar, Amit., Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands, Energy,35 (2), 582-591, 2010.  Ivanova Galina., Rákhely Gábor., Kovács Kornél L.,Thermophilic biohydrogen production from energy plants by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and comparison with related studies, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34 (9), 3659-3670, 2009.  Mohan, S. Venkata., Mohanakrishna, G., Goud, R. Kannaiah.,& Sarma, P. N., Acidogenic fermentation of vegetable based market waste to harness biohydrogen with simultaneous stabilization, Bioresource Technology, 100 (12), 3061-3068, 2008.  Zhang, Mao-Lin., Fan, Yao-Ting., Xing, Yan., Pan, Chun-Mei., Zhang, Gao-Sheng.,& Lay, Jiunn-Jyi, Enhanced Biohydrogen production from cornstalk wastes with acidification pretreatment by mixed anaerobic cultures, Biomass and Bioenergy,.31 (4), 250-254, 2007.  Antonopoulou, G.,Ntaikou, I.,Gavala, H.N.,Skiadas, I.V.,Angelopoulos, K.,& Lyberatos,G,Biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum biomass using mixed acidogenic cultures and pure cultures of Ruminococcus albus. Global nest journal, 9 (2), 144-151, 2007.  Hanaoka, Toshiaki., Yoshida, Takahiro., Fujimoto, Shinji., Kamei, Kenji., Harada, Michiaki., Suzuki, Yoshizo., Hatano, Hiroyuki., Yokoyama, Shin-ya.,& Minowa, Tomoaki, Hydrogen production from woody biomass by steam gasification using a CO2 sorbent, Biomass and Bioenergy, 28 (1), 63–68, 2005.  Lay, J.J.,Biohydrogen generation by mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose, Biotechnology and Bioengineering,74, 281-287, 2001.  Liu, H., Zhang, T., & Fang, H.P.P., Thermophilic H2 production from cellulose containing wastewater, Biotechnol. Letters, 25, 365-369, 2003.  Taguchi, F., Yamada, K., Hasegawa, K., Saito-Taki, T., & Hara, K., Continuous hydrogen production by Clostridium sp. strain no. 2 from cellulose hydrolysate in an aqueous two-phase system, Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 82, 180-183, 1996.  Taguchi, F., Mizukami, N., Yamada, K., Hasegawa, K., & Saito-Taki, T., Direct conversion of cellulosic materials to hydrogen by Clostridium sp. strain no. 2, Enzyme Microbial Technology,17, 147-150, 1995.  Composting – A Manure Treatment Technology http://www.arb.ca.gov/ag/caf/dairypnl/compovrvw.pdf  Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation. www.ensobottles.com/.../Aerobic%20Anaerobic%20Biodegradation_20090430.pdf  AlternateFuels.Com. http://www.alternatefuels.com/hydrogen.htm  Briquette,Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Briquette  Economic and Environmental Manure Solutions, Cornell University, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Ithaca, NY. Web Page http://www.bee.cornell.edu/extension/manure/composting.htm
Deepa Kala, Rajesh B. Goel, Dipti Khedekar
Aim: This study was undertaken to know if the availability of medical abortifacients can legitimately be considered a public health success in our country or is it a curse to the medical society by increasing the burden of unsafe and septic abortions. Methods: A group of hundred general practitioners were voluntarily asked to fill a proforma. Their answers were graded on a scale of minimum “1” to maximum “2” score. The whole data was then analysed for statistical significance. Result: Almost 63% of GP’s are offering Medical Abortion, out of which 40% have poor knowledge about it. The quality of medical abortion services offered by various GP’s does not correspond to the type of degrees they hold. The maximum quality of skills offered by GP’s is average. Conclusion: By modifying a few current MTP policies, medical abortion can be safely merged into the existing Indian health care infrastructure.
 Progress and prospects of MAPnet. Sushanta K Banerjee, Jaydeep Tank, Mandakini Parihar.2007:1  Early medical abortion in India: three studies and their implications for abortion services.J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):191-4.  In-depth interviews with medical abortion clients thoughts on the method and home administration of misoprostol. Elul B, Pearlman E, Sorhaindo A, Simonds W, Westhoff C. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):169-72. Population Council, New York City, USA.  Advanced practice clinicians and medical abortion: increasing access to care. Kruse B. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):167-8 Aurora Medical Services, Seattle, Washington, USA.  Guidelines for use of early medical abortion in india using Mifepristone and Misoprostol.WHO CCR in Human Reproduction,AIIMS,New Delhi.In collaboration with Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.Government of India. Government India.2006.Central drug standard Control Organisation:Directorate General of Health Services.File No-103/2001-DC.Nirman Bhawan,New Delhi.  Safe Abortion: Technical & Policy Guidance for Health Systems.Geneva,(WHO, 2003). WHO Task Force on post ovulatory methods of fertility regulation.Termination of pregnancy with reduced doses of Mifepristone.  Universal Law Publishing Co.Pvt.Ltd.2005. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act,1971. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.2005.RCH Phase II-National Program Implementation Plan.MoHFW.Government of India.
Nikhil N. Tambe, Chitra Pai
Abstract: Mobile phones are increasingly being used by health care workers in day today life. They come incontact with various surfaces while carrying out health care activities and are thus likely to get contaminated by variety of organisms. This study was carried out to know the microbial flora harboured by mobile phones of health care personnel and to know the antibiotic resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria. Mobile phones of health care personnel were swabbed and inoculated on enriched and selective media, incubated for 24 hours and a variety of biochemical tests were carried out to know the bacterial and fungal species. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were done for pathogenic bacteria using K irby Bauer disc diffusion method. It was found that out of 120 mobile phones of health care personnel, 99 (82.5%) were contaminated, while 85 (70.8%) harbored pathogenic bacteria. Out of 120 mobile phones; 65 (54.16%) harbored S. aureus, 25 (20.83%) Micrococci, 9(7.5%) Diphtheroids, 5 (4.1%) Enterococci, [4 (3.3%) each] Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Bacillus, [2(1.6%) each] Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and Streptococcus viridians. S. aureus was resistant to methicillin, amoxicillin, augmentin, erythromycin and lincomycin. [11/65 (16.9%)] Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus were isolated from health care providers. Fungi isolated were Candida 8 (6.66%), Aspegillus 6 (5%), Mucor 1 (0.8%) and Trichophyton 1 (0.8%).
 Fiona McRae. ‘Wash your hands caller, your mobile is dirtier than you think’,  Science Reporter, DAILY MAIL. 2006, 2nd August.  Brady RR, Wasson A, Sterling I , McAllister C, Damani NN , :Is your phone bugged? The incidence of bacteria known to cause nosocomial infection on health care workers’ mobile phones J Hosp Infect 62:123-125.2006  Usha S, Jayalakshmi J, Appalaraju B. ‘Cell phones as reservoir of nosocomial pathogens’. Abstract no: OA -10, IX – National Conference of Hospital Society of India, Chandigarh, India.2007, 16th February.  Ulger F, Esen S, Dilek A, Leblebicioglu H et al. ‘are your mobile phones clean?’ European congress of Clinical microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Munich, Germany. Abstract no: 1733_269. 2007, 31stMarch.  Brady RR, Fraser SF, Dunlop MG, Gibb AP, ‘Bacterial contamination of mobile communication devices in the operative environment’ J Hosp Infect 66: 397-398.2007, August.  Karabay O, Kocoglu E, Tahtaci M, ‘The role of mobile phones in the spread of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections’ J Infect Developing Countries 1:72-73.2007,14th June.  Collee JG, Marmion BP, Fraser AG, Simmons Anthony. Mackie and McCartney practical Medical Microbiology, 14thed. Churchill Livingstone: UK; 1996.  Mulligan ME, Standiford HC, Kauffman CA, ‘Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a consensus review of the microbiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology with implications for prevention and management’ Am J Med 94:313-328.1992,8th September.  Donowitz IG, Wenzel RP, Hoyt JW, ‘High risk of hospital –acquired infection in the ICU patient Crit Care Med 10:355-357.1982
Wadde Satish K., Yadav Vallabh B
BACKGROUND: - The breast feeding practices adopted in terms of duration, frequency and exclusiveness of breast feeding and weaning have great impact on complete physical, mental and psycho-social development of the child. Exclusive breast saves many lives by preventing malnutrition and infections. It gives the babies the best start in life. It is essential for the health growth of child. OBJECTIVES:- 1. To study the exclusive breast feeding practices in rural community. 2. To study some factors related to exclusive breast feeding. MATERIAL & METHODS:- The present cross sectional study was conducted in three adopted villages of Department of P.S.M., S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, Maharashtra. 306 mothers with youngest child in age group of 4-24 months were included in the study. The information was collected by interviewing the mothers with the help of pretested, predesigned proforma. RESULTS:- All the mothers’ age ranged between 18 to 35 years. Out of 306 mothers enrolled in the study 66.01% were illiterate. Only 87 (28.43%) mothers followed exclusive breast feeding. Very less no. of illiterate mothers followed exclusive breast feeding as compared to literate mothers. Exclusive breast feeding was less prevalent in mothers of lower socioeconomic status than the upper one. Significant number of mothers from nuclear and joint families followed exclusive breast feeding as compared to mothers from third generation families. 61 (34.46 %) of 177 hospital delivered mothers practiced exclusive breast feeding as compared to 26 (20.16%) of 129 home delivered mothers where chi square was significant. CONCLUSION: - Only 28.43 % mothers followed exclusive breast feeding which shows a very less. All the mothers should be encouraged to follow exclusive breast feeding practice as it is very beneficial for the physical, mental and psychosocial developmental of the child
 Training manual on breastfeeding management – steps towards baby friendly care. UNICEF, Mumbai, 1996.  S. Gopalan, R. K. Puri. Breast feeding and infant growth. Indian Paediatrics. August 1992; 29: 1079-1080.  Kameshwara Rao AA. Breast feeding behaviour of Indian women. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2004; 29(2):62-64.  Rajesh K. Chudasama, Panna C. Patel, Abhay B. Kavishwar. Determinants of Exclusive Breastfeeding in South Gujarat Region of India. J. Clin. Med. Res. 2009;1(2):102-108.  Bryce J, Terreri N, Victora CG, Mason E, Daelmans B, Bhutta ZA, et al. Countdown to 2015: tracking intervention coverage for child survival. Lancet 2006; 368: 1067-1076.  Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, et al , for the Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008; 371(9608):243-260.  World Health Organization. Infant and young child nutrition: global strategy on infant and young child feeding. Geneva; 2002 (Fifty fifth World Health Assembly).  Ministry of Health and Family Welfare: National Family Health Survey 3, India, 2007. (http://mohfw.nic.in/nfhs3/CD.htm)  D. K. Taneja. A study of infant feeding practices and the underlying factors in a rural area of Delhi. Indian Journal of community medicine, July – September 2003; 28(3) : 107 – 111.  Apurba Sinhababu, Dipta K. Mukhopadhyay, Tanmay K. Panja, Asit B. Saren, Nirmal K. Mandal, and Akhil B. Biswas. Infant- and Young Child-feeding Practices in Bankura District, West Bengal, India. J of Health, Popul Nutr June 2010;28(3):294-299  K. Madhu, Shriram Choudary, Ramesh Masthi. Breast feeding and newborn care in rural areas: a descriptive cross sectional study. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. July 2009; 34(3):243 - 246.  Nayak Sunil, Jay Padodara, Patel Sushil, Gharat Vaibhav, Patel Swati, Choksi Vivek, Desai Toral. Breast feeding practices in urban community of Surat city. National Journal of Community Medicine 2010;1(2) 111 – 113.  (Mrs.) Rama Ram, M. N. Ghosh, J. B. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya, Anima Haldar (Biswas), Chitra Chatterjee. Breast feeding practice in rural community of district of Darjeeling, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Community Medicine April – June 2000; 25(2): 79 – 82.  Kok Leong Tan. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia. International Breastfeeding Journal 2011; 6 (2).
AK Srivastava, GK Pandey
Abstract:: Seeds of one of the non-edible oilseed, kusum(Schleichera oleosa f . Sapindaceae) are of great significance in Jharkhand area and its oil is used in burning lamps, varnishing, massage and medicine. Its oil-cake is a good manure. The unsanitary and humid condition makes it prone to a faster biodeterioration due to several fungal inhabitants during storage. The colonising fungi in the seeds use up some of the glucose and starch as carbon sources for meeting energy requirements in their prolonged association with the seeds. In the span of one year the glucose level dropped by as much as 50.2 percent of its initial value. The starch in the stored seeds reduced steadily from 2.55 percent of dry seed weight to 1.25 percent due to the association of the mycodwellers.
 Baker .J 1965. Study in the respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism of plant tissues.XVIII. The effect of oxygen on starch formation and dissolution in potatoes. New Phytol. 64: 201-209.  Bilgrami KS., Jamaluddin., Sinha RK. and Prasad T. 1979. Changes in seed contents of paddy(Oryza sativa L) due to fungal flora. Phytopath J. 96: 9- 14.  Chattopadhyay NC., and Nandy B.1978. Changes in nitrogen content in malformed inflorescence of mango caused by Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. Var subglutinans Wr. Et. Rg Giornale Bot. Ital. 112: 343-346.  Cole, SW.1919. The estimation of lactose and glucose by the copper ….. Biochem J. 13(2).  Dubois ,M., Gilles,K., Hamilton , JK., Rebers,PA and Smith, F., 1951 A colorimetric method for the estimation of sugar. Nature 168: 167.  Kapoor , IJ and Tandon RN. 1970. Post infection changes in sugar content of tomato fruits caused by Dreschlera australiense. Indian Phytopath . 23 : 133-135.  Mehta P., Vyas, KM and Saksena, SP. 1975. Metabolic changes during pathogenesis of fruit rot disease of tomato. Indian Phytopath. 28 : 253- 255.  Prasad M 1989 . Plant – bacteria interaction – Its dynamics and dimensions. In Plant Microbe Interactions. Ed: KS Bilgrami. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi : 143- 161.  Schipper , AL and Mirocha, CJ, 1977. Mechanism of starch hydrolysis in bean leaves during infection by bean rust fungus. Phytopathology 58 : 1066.  Singh , Premlata and Sinha KK. 1985. Changes in the seed content of arhar infected with Aspergillus parasiticus. Indian Phytopathol. 38 : 560.  Sinha MK and Prasad ,T . 1977. Deterioration of arhar seeds by Aspergillus flavus. Indian Phytopathol. 30 : 70-72.  SInha ,MK., Singh, KK and Prasad , T. 1981. Changes in starch contents of Arhar seeds due to fungi. . Indian Phytopathol. 34 : 269- 271.  Srivastava ,AK and Pandey GK. 2000. Chemical changes in properties of kusum(Schleichera oleosa) oil during its seed infestation by fungi. J.Mycopathol . Res. 38(1): 29-32, (2000)  Wang, MC 1960. Physiological studies on Gloeosporum musarum Cook. At Mass, the causal organism of banana anthracnose . Changes in the carbohydrate composition of banana pulp with reference to the adaptive secretion of amylase. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. N.S. 1 : 59- 75.  WU , LC. 1973. Changes in some enzymes of moong bean seeds germinated on mycelia macerate of Rhizoctonia solani. Physiol. Plant Pathol . 3: 19-27.
Abstract: Water quality has significant role in human health and sustenance of human, animals and plants. The quality of groundwater within a region is governed by both natural processes such as precipitation rate, weathering processes and soil erosion and anthropogenic effects such as urban, industrial and agricultural activities and the human exploitation of water resources. This paper deals with the drinking water quality of the Sukhana river sub-basin of Aurangabad districts. Twenty groundwater samples collected and were analyzed for major physicochemical parameter such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Disolve Soilids (TDS),Calcium (Ca2+),Magnesium(Mg2+),Total Hardness (TH), Sodium (Na+),Potassium (K+), Bicarbonate alkalinity (HCO3−),Sulphate (SO4−),Chloride (Cl−) and Nitrate (NO3−) in order to understand the different geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The analytical data were interpreted with World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards. The analytical results indicate the majority groundwater samples are suitable for drinking purposes except few which indicates signs of deterioration in the study area. The aquifers of Sukhana river subbasin are subject to contamination at same places due to sewage effluents, industrial discharge and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture.
 APHA (2002). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20ndEd.). Washington D.C.: American Public and Health Association.  BIS (1991). Bureau of Indian Standards IS: 10500, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi, India.  Graniel, C. E., Morris, L.B.,and Carrillo Rivera, J. J. (1999). Effect of Urbanization on Groundwater Resources of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Environmental Geology, 37(4), 303–312. doi:10.1007/s002540050388.  Deshpande, S.M. and Aher K.R. (2011): Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Chikalthana industrial area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. Bionano Frontier, vol.4 (1) 157-161.  Deshpande S.M. and Aher K.R. (2012). Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agriculture use in Parts of Vaijapur, District Aurangabad, MS, India, Res.J.Chem.Sci., Vol. 2(1), 25-31  EEC (European Economic Communitites) (1980). Richtlinic des Rates Vem., 15.7 1980 liber die qualitat Von Wasser fur den menschlichen Gebrauch. Amtslelatt der Europaischen gemeinschaft vom. 30-8-1980, no. L 229, pp. 11-29.  Johnson, C. C. (1979). Land application of water-an accident waiting to happen. Ground Water, 17(1), 69–72. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1979.tb03277.x.  Jain, C. K. Jain., Bandyopadhyay, A., and Bhadra., A.(2009). Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environ Monit Assess,Springer. 166: 663- 673.  Umar, R.,&Sami Ahmad, M. (2000).Groundwater quality in part of Central Ganga Basin, India. Environmental Geology, 39(6), 673–678. doi:10.1007/s002540050480.  Krishna Kumar., S.,V. Rammohan., J. Dajkumar Sahayam and M. Jeevanandam ( 2009) Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India, Environ Monit Assess, 159:341–351 DOI 10.1007/s10661-008-0633-7  Rizwan,R, and Gurdeep Singh (2009). Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater in Angul-Talcher region of Orissa, India. Journal of American Science 5 (5), 53-58.  Karanth, K.R. (1987). Groundwater assessment development and management. Texta Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 242-243.  Trivedi, R.K. and Goel,P.K.,(1984).Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Environmental Publications Karad, India, 215.  WHO (1993). World health organization, Guidelines for drinking water.Vol.1,pp.52-82, Geneva.