Kulkarni U.D., Khan Asiya
The siltation rate in the Wular Lake shows abnormality in space and time, as evidenced from preliminary geological survey of its catchment. The Panjal traps, limestones (with scanty intercalations of black shales) and Karewas form the major provenance for the silt which drains into the lake. The lineament fabric suggests a strong structural control over the formation of the lake. The Tertiary uplift, as well as, the pulses of seismicity have been instrumental in modifying regional geomorphological relief and the resultant changes in the rate of siltation. The climatic changes have also influenced the varied rate of erosion and subsequent siltation. The topographic relief appears to have fluctuated in the recent geological past, as is evidenced from the silt deposits in and around the lake. The environmental significance lies in the fact that such a rate of siltation would result in shallowing of the lake floor and may prove disastrous during higher degrees of runoff (either due to excess precipitation or melting of ice). The present state of human interference, in the form of settlements around the lake and farming practices on the reclaimed and / or acquired land of the lake, are beyond permissible limits of the environmentally safety zones.
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Nanda Patil, Alok Kumar Yadav, Shrutika D. Dhawan
Kuttner’s tumour, also known as chronic sclerosing sialadenitis predominantly involves the submandibular gland. Though described more than a century ago, the entity remains under diagnosed and is commonly mistaken for carcinoma. The diagnosis is done by histopathological examination of excised salivary gland which reveals dense lympho-plasmacytic infiltration with acinar atrophy and periductal fibrosis. We present a case of Kuttner’s tumour in a 50 year old male patient to highlight its histopathological features and to increase the awareness about this under diagnosed entity.
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U. D. Kulkarni, Y. M. Nandurkar, R. R. Sangpal
Sixty groundwater samples were collected in different seasons from the study area. The water soluble products of congruent weathering reactions such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and SiO2 have been probed. Apart from these, anthropogenic parameters such as Cl, NO3, PO4, and SO4 have also been analyzed. The mathematical and graphical tools are used to assess the groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purpose. The study reveals that the concentration of major ions is controlled by the water-rock interactions. The water is not at all suitable for drinking purpose. As per pH, TDS, SAR, chloride and sulphate concentration water is suitable for irrigation purpose. Critical verification of hardness, EC, RSC, salinity hazard compels to assign water quality doubtful for irrigation purpose. Such doubtful zones need special care and suggested to adopt alternative salt tolerance cropping pattern. Also it is advised to avoid excessive use of artificial fertilizer and excessive irrigation.
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Sunita U Sawant, Sunil M Kolekar
Introduction: The muscular variations of upper limb are common. Their importance becomes apparent with regard to surgical approaches for various clinical conditions involving the upper limb. During routine dissection classes to undergraduate medical students, we came across two additional muscle bellies in the flexor compartment of the left forearm of a male cadaver arising from the under surface of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and were found to be inserted into flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) separately. The above two accessory muscle bellies are also called Gantzer's muscles. In another male cadaver, an accessory muscle belly arising from the flexor digitorum superficialis of the right forearm was found to be inserted into the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). Muscle anomalies of the upper extremity are recognized causes of peripheral nerve disorder. Awareness of these variations is necessary to avoid complications during radio-diagnostic procedures or surgeries in the upper limb.
1. Vichare N. A. Anomalous Muscle Belly of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis. The Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery 1970; 52, 4, 757-59.
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Abhivant Niteen N., Sawant Neena S.
Introduction: Depression is associated with sexual dysfunction. As the depression improves sexual dysfunction also improves. There are not many studies on female sexuality. Aims and Objectives: To find out the changes in sexual functioning in depressed females after treatment with anti-depressant drugs. Method: 41 female patients diagnosed to have depression were included in study. Becks Depression Inventory, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale and Female Sexual Functioning Index scales were applied at the beginning and after 6 weeks to assess the improvement in sexual dysfunction and depression. Results: When scores were compared after 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment then a highly significant difference was seen on all the scores of BDI ( p< 0.000***), ASEX ( p< 0.027***)and FSFI. (p< 0.01**). On the various domains of FSFI a highly significant difference was seen on the domains of Arousal (p< 0.03**), Lubrication (p< 0.051**), Orgasm (p< 0.028**) and Satisfaction (p< 0.06**). Desire and pain domains did not show any significant changes. Conclusions: This study showed significant improvement in sexual dysfunction and different aspects of sexual dysfunctions after treatment with antidepressants for 6 weeks.
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Kapil S. More, Vijaykumar R. Kapse, Sonali Kagne, Deepak Kubde
Introduction: Schizencephaly is an extremely rare developmental disorder of the brain. Its prevalence in Indian data is 1.5: 1,00,000 population. It is a triad of hemiplegia, seizure disorder and mental retardation. Hence we are reposting a case of 28 yrs. old female who presented with intractable seizures and altered sensorium for 2 days. She is a known case of epilepsy since the age of two months. She also had left sided hemiparesis since the same duration. She had delayed developmental milestones and mental retardation. Her, CT brain was done. It showed large fluid filled cavity occupying right frontal, temporo- parietal region lined by grey matter communicated with right ventricle. These findings are constistent with right sided unilateral open-lip schizencephaly.
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B. J. Pradeep Kumar, Sudhir Modala, Parimala P., Manisha Baghel
Aim: Lipid profile and glycosylated hemoglobin level changes in gestational diabetes. The extent to which this alteration takes place is still not clearly documented. Materials and Methods: To add a clear answer to this question, lipid profile parameters, and glycosylated hemoglobin status were determined in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and compared to healthy pregnant women (controls). Results: Fasting plasma glucose levels, plasma glucose levels 1 hour, and plasma glucose levels 2 hours after 75 gm oral glucose administration (oral glucose tolerance test) were significantly higher in patients with gestational diabetes as compared to controls. Glycosylated hemoglobin was significantly higher in gestational diabetes than in controls. It was observed that there was a significant increase in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level in cases with gestational diabetes when compared to healthy pregnant women. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that abnormal glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, and serum triglycerides play an important role in pathophysiology of gestational diabetes, and therefore, extensive studies are required. Early diagnosis of gestational diabetes will decrease adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes
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Epidemiology of gestational Diabetes mellitus and its association with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabet Med 2004; 21:103-13. 6. Dooley SL, Metzger BE, Cho NH. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Influence of race on disease prevalence and perinatal outcome in a U.S. population. Diabetes 1991;40:25-29 7. Coustan DR, Nelson C, Carpenter MW, Carr SR, Widness JA. Maternal age and screening for gestational diabetes: A population based study. Obstet Gynecol 1989;73:557-61 8. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics. ACOG practice bulletin. Management of preterm labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003;82:27-135 9. Sokol R, Blackwell S. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Practice Bulletins. ACOG practice bulletin: Shoulder dystocia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003;801:87-92 10. Kjos SL, Buchanan TA, Montoro M, Coulson A, Mestman JH. Serum lipids within 36 month of delivery in women with recent gestational diabetes. Diabetes 1991;40:142-6 11. Alexander CM, Landsman PB, Teutsch SM. Diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, atherosclerotic risk factors, and prevalence of coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2000;l86:897-902 12. Masding MG, Stears AJ, Burdge GC, Wootton SA, Sandeman DD. Premenopausal advantage in postprandial lipid metabolism are lost in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3243-9 13. Ho JE, Paultre F, Mosca L. Is diabetes a cardiovascular disease risk equivalent for fatal stroke in women? Data from the Women's Pooling Project. Stroke 2003;34:2812-6 14. Natarajan S, Liao Y, Cao G, Lipsitz SR, McGee DL. Sex differences in risk of coronary heart disease mortality associated with diabetes and established coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:1735-40. 15. Kanaya AM, Grady D, Barrett-Connor E. Explaining the sex difference in coronary heart disease mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162:1737-45. 16. Chen L, Hu FB, Yeung E, Willett W, Zhang C. A prospective study of pre-gravid sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2009;32:2236-41 17. Varley H. Glucose tolerance tests and tests for investigating hypoglycemia. In: Practical Clinical Biochemistry. 4th ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2005. p. 97-102. 18. Trinder P. Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase - peroxidase system with a noncarcinogenic chromogen. Journal of clinical pathology 1969; 22:158-61. 19. Little RR, England JD, Weidmeyer HM, Goldstein DE. Glycosylated hemoglobin measured by affinity chromatography: Microsample collection and room-temperature storage. Clin Chem 1983; 29:1080-2. 20. Alian CC, Poon LS, Chan CSG. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry 1974; 20:470-5. 21. Bucolo G, David H. Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by the use of enzymes. Clin Chem 1973;19:476-82 22. 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Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose tolerance and neonatal outcome in gestational diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. J Perinat Med 1984; 12:137- 45.
K. Vidyasagar, R. Ravikumar
Purpose: Clindamycin is commonly used in the treatment of erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing skin and soft tissue infections. In vitro routine tests for clindamycin susceptibility may fail to detect inducible clindamycin resistance due to erm genes resulting in treatment failure, thus necessitating the need to detect such resistance by a simple D test on routine basis. Materials and Method: 100 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various clinical samples subjected to routine antibiotic susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by D test, as per CLSI guidelines on erythromycin resistant isolates. Results: 42 (42%) isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance, 13 (13%) showed constitutive resistance while 10(10%) showed MS phenotype. Inducible resistance was found to be higher in Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (56.6%, 13.2% and 25.53%, 12.7% respectively) Conclusion: Study showed that D test should be used as a mandatory method in routine disc diffusion testing to detect inducible clindamycin resistance.
1. Feigin RD, Pickering LK, Anderson D, et al .Clindamycin treatment of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children. Pediatrics. 1975; 55:213–223. 2. Martinez-Aguilar G, Hammerman W, Mason E Jr, et al. Clindamycin treatment of invasive infections caused by community-acquired, methicillin resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcusaureus in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003; 22:593–598. 3. Frank AL, Marcinak J, Mangat P, et al. Clindamycin treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children. PediatrInfect Dis J. 2002; 21:530 –534. 4. Fiebelkorn KR, Crawford SA, McElmeel ML, Jorgensen JH. Practical disc diffusion method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41:4740-4. 5. Gadepalli R, Dhawan B, Mohanty S, Kapil A, Das BK, Chaudhry R. Inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Indian J Med Res 2006; 123:571-3. 6. Steward CD, Raney PM, Morrell AK, Williams PP, McDougal LK, Jevitt L, et al. testing for induction of clindamycin resistance in erythromycin resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:1716-21 7. Kloos WE, Banerman TL. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus, Chapter 22. In: Manual of clinical microbiology. 7 th ed. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, editors. Washington DC: ASM Press; 1999. p. 264-82. 8. Clinical and laboratory standards institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Seventeenth informational supplement. Vol. 27. No.1 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute; 2007. 9. Yilmaz G, Aydin K, Iskender S, Caylan R, Koksal I. Detection and prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance in staphylococci. J Med Microbiol 2007;56:342-5 10. Rahabar M, Hajia M. Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A cross sectional report. Pak J BiolSci 2007; 10:189-92. 11. Ajantha GS, Kulkarni RD, Shetty J, Shubhada C, Jain P. Phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance amongst Staphylococcus aureus isolates by using lower limit of recommended inter-disk distance. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2008; 51:376-8. 12. Rao GG. Should clindamycin be used in treatment of patients with infections caused by erythromycin-resistant staphylococci? J AntimicrobChemother 2000; 45:715.
Lakshmi T., Zaheera Sultana S., S. V. Brid
Background: Hearing is the means by which the newborn comes into contact with the world of sound and with language. The first three years of life are the most important period for speech and language acquisition. Reduced hearing acuity of any severity in infancy or early childhood may prevent the child from receiving adequate auditory, linguistic and social stimulation required for speech and language development. Hearing loss is one of the most common abnormalities present since birth. The prevalence of hearing loss is reported to be 1.5 to 6 per 1000 newborn in the well baby nursery population. Several risk factors associated with hearing loss during early infancy have been described by Joint Committee on Infant Hearing which includes hereditary cause, inutero infection, prematurity, asphyxia, hyperbili-rubinemia and ototoxic medications. Objectives: To assess the degree of hearing impairment in high risk infants by using BERA and to analyse and compare BERA responses in high risk infants with age matched controls. Methods: 100 high risk infants having one or more risk factors attending Pediatric OPD of Bapuji hospital and Chigateri General Hospital and 30 age matched controls satisfying the inclusion criteria were randomly selected from immunization centre were subjected to BERA. Parameters such as absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, Interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V were assessed and analysed by using unpaired t-test. Results: The high risk infants had increased wave V threshold when compared to the control group. Absolute latencies of wave III, V, interpeak latencies of I-III and I-V were prolonged in the cases. The incidence of hearing impairment was 64.9% in the high risk infants.
1. Biswas. A Brainstem evoked response audiometry. In: clinical Audiovestibulometry. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Bhalani; 2002. p. 68 – 88. 2. World Health Organization. State of hearing and ear care in the South East Asia Region. WHO Regional office for Sout East Asia. WHO – SEARO. Available at http://www.searo.who.int/link Files/Publications - HEARING - and - EAR – CARE.pdf. 3. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. American Academy of Pediatrics. American Speech – Language – Hearing Association. Directors of speech and hearing programs in State Health and Welfare Agencies. Year 2007 Position statement: Principles and Guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Pediatrics. 2007; 1204 898 – 921. 4. Ansari MS. Screening programme for hearing impairment in newborns: A challenge during rehabilitation for all. Asia Pacific disability Rehabilitation Journal. 2004; 15: 83-89. 5. Hecox K, Galambos R. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults. Arch Otolaryngol 1974; 99: 30 -34. 6. Bilgen H, Akman I, Ozek E, Kulekei S, Ors R, Carman K et al. Auditory brain stem response screening for hearing loss in high risk neonates. Turk J Med Sci. 2000; 30: 479 – 82. 7. Morales SG, Poblano A, Galvan AR, Carrocera LAF. Auditory evoked potentials in children at neonatal risk for hypocusis. Pan Am J Public Health. 1997; 24: 232 – 37. 8. Aiyer RG, Parikh B. Evaluation of auditory brainstem responses for hearing screening of high risk if ants. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck surgery. 2009; 61: 47 – 53. 9. Tahdiri MM, Emami F, Ghale’iha A. auditory evaluation of high risk newborns by automated auditory brainstem response. Iran J Pediatrics. 2008; 184: 330 – 34. 10. Fakhraee SH, Kazemian M, Hamidieh A. hearing assessment of high risk neonates admitted to Mofid hospital for children during 2001 – 2002 using auditory brainstem response. Arch Inanian Med. 2004; 71: 44 – 46. 11. Task force on Newborn and infant hearing. Newborn and Infant Hearing Loss: Detection and Intervention. J. Pediatrics. 1999; 103: 527 – 30. 12. John M, Balraj A, Kurien M. Neonatal screening for hearing loss: pilot study from a tertiary care centre. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck surgery. 2009; 61: 23 – 26. 13. Murphy OA, van Straaten HL, Ens-Dokkum MH, Beer KMA. Neonatal hearing screening. Ned Tijdschr Geneedsk. 2000; 144:594-98. 14. Gupta AK, Anand NK, Raj H. Evaluation of risk factors for hearing impairment in at risk neonates by brainstem evoked response audiometry. Indian J Pediatrics. 1991; 58: 849 – 55.
Shailender Singh N, Satishchandra H
Introduction: Detection of malignant renal masses and their differentiation from their benign counterparts is extremely important, especially when these masses are small. Although the effectiveness of conventional axial renal CT is well established, a variety of problems can be encountered. The major advantages of the multiple detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) technology over conventional CT is that it allows for acquisition of different image thicknesses from the same acquisition data set. Thus the present study was undertaken to study the efficiency of MDCT in diagnosing renal masses. Aims and Objective: To find out the efficiency of Multi-detector Computed Tomography in the evaluation of renal masses. Materials and Method: The study was conducted over a period of two years on 50 patients with clinically suspected Renal mass or patients who were diagnosed to have renal mass on ultrasound and were referred to CT for further characterization. Results: Overall there were 33 (66%) males and 17 (34%) females; the male to female ratio was 1.9:1.thus renal neoplasm was seen more commonly in males. MDCT was able to differentiate a benign from malignant lesion with Sensitivity of 100, Specificity of 71 %, and Accuracy of 96 %. When the images were assessed in unenhanced, corticomedullary and nephrographic phases. Conclusion: Multi-detector Computed Tomography can be used as an efficient tool with high degree of accuracy in diagnosing renal masses.
1. Multi-detector row CT of the kidneys Atadan Tunaci, Ensar Yekeler European Journal of Radiology - October 2004 (Vol. 52, Issue 1, Pages 56-66 2. Curry NS AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995 Feb;164(2):355-62.Small renal masses (lesions smaller than 3 cm): imaging evaluation and management 3. Effect of incidental detection for survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma: Results of population-based study of 701 patients Urology, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 1186-1191 T. Gudbjartsson, A. Thoroddsen, V. Petursdottir, S. Hardarson, J. Magnusson, G. Einarsson 4. K. Tsui, O. Shvarts, R. Smith, R. Figlin, J. De kernion, A. Belldegrun Renal cell carcinoma: prognostic significance of incidentally detected tumors the journal of urology, volume 163, issue 2, pages 426-430 5. RPS Bajwa, P Sandhu, BS Aulakh, JS Sandhu, K Saggar, Helical CT Evaluation of Renal Mass Lesions: A Prospective Study A Ahluwalia Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine Vol. 8, No. 3 July-September, 2007 6. Ronald J. Zagoria, MD, Tyler Gasser, BA, John R. Leyendecker, MD, Robert E. Bechtold, MD,and Raymond B. Dyer, MD . Differentiation of Renal Neoplasms From High-Density Cysts: Use of Attenuation Changes Between the Corticomedullary and Nephrographic Phases of Computed Tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2007;31:37-41 7. Kopka L, Fischer U, Zoeller G, Schmidt C, Ringert RH, Grabbe E (1997) Dual-phase helical CT of the kidney: value of corticomedullary and nephrographic phase for evaluation of renal lesions and preoperative staging of renal cell carcinomas. Am J Roentgenol 169:1573–1578 8. Garant M, Bonaldi VM, Taourel P, Pinsky MF, Bret PM (1998) Enhancement patterns of renal masses during multiphase helical CT acquisitions. Abdom Imaging 23:431–436.
Kalabharathi H L, Mohammed Sibgatullah, Pushpa V H, Satish A M, Suresha R N
Objective: To determine the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs in Narsimharajamohalla of Mysore. To determine the lifestyle practices of hypertensives. Materials and Methods: Around 165 patients were enrolled in the survey after obtaining their consent. Prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs was noted. Lifestyle practices such as exercise habits, dietary salt intake; compliance to medication was enquired through a questionnaire. Results: majority of patients are on combination therapy. Diuretics were the commonly prescribed antihypertensives. Reduction in salt intake and exercise habits were poor among majority of the patients. Few patients were noncompliant to the prescribed medication. Conclusion: With the obtained data showing a large amount of patients on combination therapy with poor life style practices, there should be an emphasis on health education. The prescribing doctor, paramedics, media, government should do their best in educating the masses.
1. World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertension 2003; 21: 1983-92. 2. Chockalingam A. "Impact of World Hypertension Day". Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2007; 23(7): 517–9. PMID 17534457 3. Lawes CM, Vander HS, Rodgers A. Global burden of blood-pressure related disease, 2001.Lancet. 2008; 371:1513–8. [PubMed] 4. Egan BM, Zhao Y, Axon RN. US trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, 1988-2008. JAMA. 2010; 303:2043–50. [PubMed] 5. Weinberger MH. Seminars in Cerebrovascular Diseases and Stroke. 2003; 3:3237-41.