Sivakkumar Shanmugasundaram, Premamalini Thayanidhi
This article emphasizes the importance of self revealing and analyzes various reasons related to hospitals, work place and family for not revealing of serostatus. The study was conducted at a Non Government Organization in Chennai among 61 people living with HIV. In this study, it was observed that about 14 (22.95%) patients out of total 61 PLWH had undergone discrimination in hospitals mainly by qualified doctors(57.14%), nurse (28. 57%) and paramedical staff (14.28%). Majority of the patients i.e about 42( 85.71%) did not reveal the HIV status at work place out of which, 30 (71.42%) had fear of discrimination and the rest 12 (28.57%) had fear of losing job. Most of the PLWH 50(82%) had revealed their HIV status to family members among which 40 (80%) got support from them and only 10(20%) had been discriminated by family members after revealing the status. Hence it can be concluded from this study that most of them have not revealed their status because of fear of discrimination at various levels.
1. Candace A Thoth Self-disclosure of serostatus by youth who are HIV-positive: a review Journal of Behavioral Medicine April 2014, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 276-288 2. Stutterheim SE, Shiripinda I, Bos AE, Pryor JB, de Bruin M, Nellen JF, et al. HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive African and Afro-Caribbean people in the Netherlands. AIDS Care. 2011;23(2):195–205. 3. Challenges associated with disclosing one’s HIV-positive status ; cited 2014 dec 20. Available from: http://www.aidsmap.com/ 4. DONNA B. JEFFE, Disclosure of HIV Status to Medical Providers: Differences byGender, "Race," and Immune Function : cited 2014 dec 10. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1308555 5. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV remains widespread in Asia and the Pacific, report shows :cited 2014 dec 10 .Available from http://www.unaids.org/ 6. HIV and AIDS Related Employment Discrimination in China : cited 2014 dec 15 Available from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia 7. Annamarya Scaccia Stigma Drives Workplace Discrimination Against Workers Living With HIV :cited 2014 dec 15. Available from http://rhrealitycheck.org/ 8. Telling to your family :cited 2014 dec 20 : Available from http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics 9. Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Disclosure of HIV Status and Social Support Among People Living With HIV Iran Red Crescent Med J. Aug 2014; 16(8): e11856
Archana Singh, Syed Hasan Hyder Zaidi, Rakesh Gupta
Introduction: The surgeon who is going to perform a surgery in oral cavity e.g. a dental surgeon performing tooth extraction should be aware of accessory mandibular foramina for planning anaesthesia at an appropriate anatomical site as the branches of the facial nerve, mylohyoid nerve, buccal nerve and transverse cervical cutaneous nerve are known to pass through these foramina. Another applied use of morphological situation of accessory mandibular foramina may be utilized by the oncologist in planning radiation therapy as these foramina also provide an easy route for the spread of infection and tumor cells following radiotherapy. Since the positions of these foramina in the mandibular bones are highly variable with the races, region, and ethnicity and if this information of position of foramina can be made available freely for particular region with the help of such types of studies like the present one. Thus we can increase utilization to enhance accuracy especially in the above mentioned areas of medical field. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of variations regarding the position and number of accessory mandibular foramina in human dry mandibles of north Indian population irrespective of gender and specific age in the light of similar studies in other global region and to draw significant conclusions. Material and Methods: Twenty eight dry human mandibles of Rohilkhand Medical College and Institutes of Dental College, Bareilly, UP, were studied to find out the incidence of accessory mandibular foramina, a mandibular variant. Results: Out of total 28 mandibles this variant (accessory mandibular foramina) was present in 39.28% of mandibles. The commonest pattern of this variant was bilateral in 21.43% of mandibles. Out of these in 14.29% mandibles the variant was single and in 3.57% mandible it was double while in remaining 3.57% of mandibles it was triple. In 17.86% mandibles the pattern was found to be unilateral.
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Sumanta Jha, Soumya Kundu, Falguni Mandi, Souvik Ray, Sudipta Sil, Saumen Nandi
Lung cancer is the commonest cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking is by far the most predominant risk factor of lung cancer. However a variety of genetic and environmental risk factors, occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, silica and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon also plays a role in lung cancer. Lung cancer is rare in young age. We report a case of a young man 24 year old, never-smoker, with no family history of malignancy, and no past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with cough, right sided chest pain and shortness of breath for 1 month duration. Patient was a manual labourer for 6 years. Clinicoradiologically, he was diagnosed as a case of right sided pulmonary consolidation with parapneumonic pleural effusion. CT guided FNAC from consolidation of right lung revealed adenocarcinoma. Chemotherapy was started and the follow-up is uneventful till now.
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Ramya C M, S M Nataraj
Objective: To study the effect of moderate isotonic exercise on Ocular perfusion pressure in healthy obese young adults. Method: 100 healthy young adult volunteers comprising 50 obese and 50 non-obese in the age group of 18-19 years were selected among MBBS Phase I students of JSS Medical college, JSSU, Mysuru. Subjects were asked to perform moderate Isotonic exercise on Treadmill. Heart rate, Intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and arterial blood pressure (BP) were recorded at rest and post- exercise period. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) were calculated. Results: There was a significant increase in MAP & OPP and a decrease in IOP in post-exercise period in obese group compared to non-obese group [(Obese: MAP=93.93±4.75 to 105.37±4.91; OPP=51.48±3.27 to 61.23±3.25; IOP=16.71±1.08 to 13.53±1.01). (Non-obese: MAP = 91.37±2.71 to 104.41±4.44; OPP = 50.14± 1.57 to 61.05± 2.86; IOP =16.17±0.97 to 12.82±1.24)]. The OPP was significantly high in males (53.49±1.87) than female group (49.47±3.14) at rest. Following exercise OPP was significantly raised in females as compared to males. Conclusion: Moderate isotonic exercise proves beneficial to ocular health by increasing the perfusion levels, which may be helpful for glaucomatous patients.
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Priyaranjan Chattopadhyay, Soumya Kundu, Apurba Ghosh, Aditi Bhattacharyya, Manatosh Mandal
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the production of hematopoietic precursors outside the bone marrow cavity which may cause mass effects according to its localization. A 50-year-old male presented with non-specific symptomatology and a mass in both paravertebral regions and posterior mediastinum on chest X-ray and in the chest computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT guided percutaneous needle aspiration from the mass showed hematopoietic cells with fat spaces. A bone marrow biopsy revealed a hypercellular marrow with an increased fibrosis. The final diagnosis was myelofibrosis leading to extramedullary hematopoiesis in paravertebral region. Keywords: Extramedullary hematopoiesis, paravertebral region mass, myelofibrosis.
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Bhurke D P, Farooqui Mohd Abdulrafe
Background: In India snakes are worshipped since ancient times, and it occupies important place in the field of medicine and medical emblems. Out of 216 species which are found in India only 52 (24.07%) species are poisonous. Approximately 2,00,000 persons are reportedly bitten by snakes out of which 35000 to 50000 persons meet death in India. Aims and Objectives: Several studies reported in the Indian literature state that there is variability of the clinical profile of snake bites. Aims and Objectives: This prospective study to clinical profile of patient admitted with history of snake bite was carried out. Materials and Methodology: Patients with history of snake bite were included in the study, 200 cases satisfied the criteria for inclusion. Patients transferred to other hospitals and could not be followed were excluded. Depending on clinical features, the patients were divided into two groups. Ineffective and effective bites. Effective bites were sub-classified as a local swelling, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and combined. The patients who had signs of envenomation were subjected for detailed hematological, biochemical, electrocardiogram and other investigations. Results and Observations: The male to female ratio was 1.29:1.00. In the age group of 21 to 30 years there was maximum number. The higher number of cases was from rural area. The highest number of bites occurred in lower limb 117 (59.70%). Out of 200 snake bite cases 77 (38.5%) were ineffective and remaining 123 were effective. Amongst them there were 101 (82.11%) patients had local reaction, 66 (53.65%) neurotoxicity, 19 (15.44%) nephrotoxicity, 5 (2.5) combined toxicity and 13 (10.56) had cardiotoxicity. Out of these 123 cases 19 (15.44%) cases developed renal failure who were treated conservatively or dialysis, out of these 4 (3.25%) patients died of uremia. Respiratory paralysis was developed in 15 (12.19%) patients who were given respiratory assisted ventilation, out of these 1 (0.81%) patients died. Conclusion: Low mortality in cases of snake bites is due to availability of independent dialysis unit, ventilator support and proper early anti snake venom treatment free of cost to the patients available in the institute.
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Sujata Mane, Vasanti Munot
Introduction: Adolescence is a formative period of life. It is a crucial period because major physical, psychological and behavioral changes take place. It is a period to undertake major decisions; including responsible parenthood Adolescents constitute a great human resource for the society. Amis and Objectives: to study the profile of adolescent girls with obstetrics problems. Materials and Method: All the adolescent girls (age between10-19 years) attending the institute with obstetrical complaints were enrolled in the study. Detail history and complete clinical examination was done in all the girls. All the adolescent girls were followed up till the termination of pregnancy. Counselling of parents and girls was done wherever required. Results: 50% of the adolescent girls were in the age group 18-19 years. 63.64% of adolescent girls were belonging to lower socioeconomic class. Majority of the adolescent girls reporting to the institute were more than 14th week of gestational age. Out of the total 22 pregnant adolescent girls 14 were managed by inducted abortion. Preterm delivery was observed in 3 cases and third degree perineal tear was observed in one case. Conclusion: Thus from the above study, it can be concluded that Comprehensive sex education and establishment of adolescent clinics id desirable to prevent unwanted early pregnancies in adolescent girls.
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Kalpesh A Parmar, Pankaj Pandor, Himanshu Soni
This study was carried out in 150 cases to make a comparative study of different methods of preoperative skin preparation to find out the best possible and feasible method out of the many available methods influencing the rate of postoperative surgical site infection.
1. P J Cruse, R Foord, "The epidemiology of wound infection: A 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds," Surgical Clinics of North America 60 (February 1980) 27-40; J W Alexander et al, "The influence of hair-removal methods on wound infections," Archives of Surgery 118 (March 1983) 347-352; R Seropian, B M Reynolds, "Wound infections after preoperative depilatory versus razor preparation," American Journal of Surgery 121 (March 1971) 251-254. 2. A J Mangram et al, "Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999: Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee," Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 20 (April 1999) 250-278. 3. Clinical Practice Guideline Development, AHCPR Program Note, AHCPR publ no 93-0023 (Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1993). 4. C M Court-Brown, "Preoperative skin depilation and its effect on postoperative wound infections," Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 26 (July 1981) 238-241. 5. S Rojanapirom, S Danchaivijitr, "Pre-operative shaving and wound infection in appendectomy," Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 75 suppl 2 (March 1992) 20-23. 6. N Y Hoe, R Nambiar, "Is preoperative shaving really necessary?" Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 14 (October 1985) 700-704 7. M L Moro et al, "Risk factors for surgical wound infections in clean surgery: A multicenter study," Annali Italiani di Chirurgia 67 (January/February 1996) 13- 19. 8. S F Mishriki, D J Law, P J Jeffery, "Factors affecting the incidence of postoperative wound infection," Journal of Hospital Infection 16 (October 1990) 223-230. 9. S Ratanalert et, "Nonshaved cranial neurosurgery," Surgical Neurology 51 (April 1999) 458-463. 10. M A Horgan, J H Piatt Jr, "Shaving of the scalp may increase the rate of infection in CSF shunt surgery," Pediatric Neurosurgery 26 (April 1997)180-184. 11. Cruse, Foord, "The epidemiology of wound infection: A 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds," 27-40. 12. K R Winston, "Hair and neurosurgery," Neurosurgery 31 (August 1992) 320-329. 13. W Ko et al, "Effects of shaving methods and intraoperative irrigation on suppurative mediastinitis after bypass operations," Annals of Thoracic Surgery 53 (February 1992) 301-305. 14. Alexander et al, "The influence of hair-removal methods on wound infections," 347-352. 15. E R Balthazar, J D Colt, R L Nichols, "Preoperative hair removal: A random prospective study of shaving versus clipping," Southern Medical Journal 75 (July 1982) 799-801. 16. J A Sellick Jr, M Stelmach, J M Mylotte, "Surveillance of surgical wound infections following open heart surgery," Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 12 (October 1991) 591-596. 17. M M Olson, J MacCallum, D G McQuarrie, "Preoperative hair removal with clippers does not increase infection rate in clean surgical wounds," Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 162 (February 1986) 181-182. 18. Cruse, Foord, "The epidemiology of wound infection: A 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds," 27-40. 19. Court-Brown, "Preoperative skin depilation and its effect on postoperative wound infections," 238-241 20. P Thur de Koos, B McComas, "Shaving versus skin depilatory cream for preoperative skin preparation: A prospective study of wound infection rates," American Journal of Surgery 145 (March 1983) 377-378. 21. Goeau-Brissonniere et al, "Preoperative skin preparation: A prospective study comparing a depilatory agent to shaving," La Presse Medicale 16 (Sept 26, 1987) 1517-1519. 22. Seropian, Reynolds, "Wound infections after preoperative depilatory versus razor preparation," 251-254. 23. K Westermann, R Malottke, "Does preoperative shaving cause disturbance of wound healing?" Unfallheilkunde 82 (May 1979) 200-205. 24. S J Powis, TAWaterworth, D G Arkell, "Preoperative skin preparation: Clinical evaluation of depilatory cream," British Medical Journal 2 (Nov 13, 1976) 1166-1168. 25. Alexander et al, "The influence of hair-removal methods on wound infections," 347-352. 26. G Mehta, B Prakash, S Karmoker, "Computer assisted analysis of wound infection in neurosurgery," Journal of Hospital Infection 11 (April 1988) 244- 252. 27. Seropian, Reynolds, "Wound infections after preoperative depilatory versus razor preparation," 251-254. 28. Alexander et al, "The influence of hair-removal methods on wound infections,"347-352. 29. J Zentner, J Gilsbach, F Daschner, "Incidence of wound infection in patients undergoing craniotomy: Influence of type of shaving," Acta Neurochirurgica 86 no 3/4 (1987) 79-82. 30. T G Emori, R P Gaynes, "An overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the microbiology laboratory," Clinical Microbiology Reviews 6 (October 1993)428-442; R P Wenzel, "The Lowbury Lecture: The economics of nosocomial infections," Journal of Hospital Infection 31 (October 1995) 79-87.
Sujata Mane, Vasanti Munot
Introduction: Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period which signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood, which are formative years when maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioural changes take place most notable being the onset of menstruation. Aims and Objectives: To study the various gynecological problems of adolescents. Materials and Method: All the adolescent girls (age between10-19 years) attending the institute with gynecological complaints were enrolled in the study. Detail history and complete clinical examination was done in all the girls. All the adolescent girls were treated using standard protocol and followed up regularly. Counseling of parents and girls was done wherever required. Results: Majority (30.38%) of the adolescent girls attending gynecology department were having menstrual disorders followed by primary amenorrhea (22.78%) and sexual assault (29.11%). Menorrhagia was observed in 17 cases. Among the primary amenorrhea cases; Cryptomenorrhea and true amenorrhea was seen in 9 cases each. 23 cases of sexual assault were in the present study. Conclusion: Thus in the end we conclude that menstrual abnormalities are the most common problems of adolescents.
1. Singh sp, Singh maya. Knowledge Assessment regarding Puberty and Menstruation among School Adolescent Girls of District Varanasi (U.P.); Indian Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine. 2006; 37 (1and2): 9-14. 2. Rajni Dhingra, Anil Kumar and Manpreet Kour, Knowledge and Practices Related to Menstruation among Tribal (Gujjar) Adolescent Girls, Ethno-Med, (2009) 3(1): 43-48. 3. Adrija Datta, Nirmalya Manna, Mousumi Datta , Jhuma Sarkar, Baijayanti Baur, Saraswati Datta. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls A school based comparative study of West Bengal, India: Global Journal of Medicine GJMEDPH. 2012; l (5):50-57. 4. Ramya V A Study on Adolescent Health with Special Reference to Reproductive and Sexual Health, Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In The Urban Field Practice Area of Bmch, Chitradurga 2013. 5. William LI, Parry-Jones. Oxford text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Third edition:1397-1410 6. Goswami Sebanti, Dutta Rekha, Sengupta Sibani. A profile of adolescent girls with gynecological problems. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2005 ;( 55) 4: 353-355. 7. Dasgupta. A, Sarkar.M, Menstrual Hygiene: How Hygienic is the Adolescent Girl? Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Vol. 33, Issue 2, April 2008: 77-80 8. Dr. Harsha Solanki, Dr. Vibha Gosalia, Dr. Harshad Patel, Dr. Falguni Vora, Dr. M.P. Singh. A Study of Menstrual Problems and Practices among Girls of Mahila College. Adolescents and Menstruation NJIRM 2012; 3(4): 24-7 9. Cosgrove L, Riddle B. Constructions of femininity and experiences of menstrual distress. Women Health. 2003; 38(3):37-58. 10. Henryj Norris, Robertd Jensen. Relative frequency of ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. Cancer. 1972; 30(3): 713-19. 11. Sexual violence. Chapter 6. World report on violence and health.
Jayashree, Asha Hanamshetty
Objectives: To study the maternal mortality and the common causes and complications leading to maternal death over a period of 7 years from 2008 – 2014. Methods: Prospective study of maternal death in Brims Bidar over a period of seven years was carried out. Results: Maternal Mortality Rates (MMR) of 157.16 to 53.6 were observed over a period of 7 years. Of the women who died 85.29% were from rural areas, 67.6% were unbooked for delivery. 82.35% were in 20 to 30 years age group. Hemorrhage was the commonest cause of death followed by sepsis. Anaemia was the major indirect cause of maternal mortality. Conclusion: Hemorrhage and sepsis were the major cause of death. Anaemia was an important indirect cause of death.
1. Bedi N, Kambo I, Dhilion BS et al. Maternal deaths in India: preventable tragedies. (An ICMR Task Force Study). J Obstet Gynaeco India 201; 51:86-92. 2. Rao KA. Presidential address. The 44th All India Onstetric and Gynaecological Congress. Ahmedabad. December 27, 2000. Jobstet Gynaecol India 2001; 51:25-8. 3. Patel DA. Gangopadhyay S, Vaishnav SB et al. Maternal mortality at Karamsad – the only rural medical college om Gujarat (January 1994 to December – 1977). J Obster gynaecol India 2001; 51:63-6. 4. Bhattacharjee S. A study on maternal mortality in Silchar Medical College and Hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol India 2001;51:67-70. 5. Verna Ashok, A study on maternal Medical College, Tanda, J. Obster Gynaecol India Vol 58, No.3, May/June 2008. 6. National Rural Health Mission: frame work for implementation 2005-2012. New Delhi: Ministry of Health & family Welfare, Govt. of India. 7. United Nations Millennium Develoment Goals. www.un.org/millenniumgoals. 8. Maternal, mortality, A FOGSI study, Konar Hiralal J. Obster Gynaecol of India, March/April 2013, 63(2) 88-95.
Mutharasu A, Sowmya S, Ramya G
Benign fibrous histiocytoma is a fairly common soft tissue neoplasm composed of storiform pattern of spindle cells and histiocytes, usually seen in the dermis rarely infiltrating the sub cutis. Verruca vulgaris is another common skin lesion caused by human papilloma virus which affects only the epidermis at any site in the body. Both these lesions favor the extremities and are mostly common in female population. Verruca vulgaris coexisting with benign fibrous histiocytoma is rarely documented. We document here a case of 43 year old male presenting with elevated lesions in his skin all over the body, clinically suspected to be neurofibromatosis but the biopsy proved otherwise.
1. Weiss, Goldblum. Enzinger and Weiss’s Soft Tissue Tumors, 4thed. Elsevier.2001: 331-342. 2. Elder D. Lever’s Histopathology of skin, 10th ed. Lippincott williams.2009:650-652. 3. Skoulakis C,papadakis C,datseris G,drivas E,kyrmizakis D, Subcutaneous benign fibrous histiocytoma of the cheek. ACTA otorhinolaryngologica.2007;27: 90-93. 4. Young T, Chang H,Lee J, Lee W, Son S. A Clinical and Histopathological Study of 122 Cases of Dermatofibroma. Ann Dermatol Vol. 23(2), 2011:185-192. 5. Cubie HA. Diseases associated with human papillomavirus infection.Virology.2013:445(1-2). 6. Bruggink et al. Natural course of cutaneous warts among children.Ann Fam Med.2013; 11(5):437-41.
Namitha D, Murali Mohan R, Yashas H R, Srinath R, Sushruta M S, Akshai C K
Introduction: Many of the operations performed by the general surgeons take place within the abdomen and consequently incision and suturing of the abdominal layers is the most common exercise in operative surgery. Abdominal closure is very important with regard to incision, technique of repair and use of newer suture material, and has created a great interest to surgeons. Recent data suggests that technical factors are crucial and can be manipulated by the surgeon. Different suture techniques are used for closure of laparotomy wounds and each has its strong proponents. But the ideal method of abdominal wound closure is modified frequently. Commonly followed methods of abdominal closure are conventional layered closure and single layer closure. Aim: To compare the techniques of single layer closure and conventional layered closure of laparotomy wounds in a rural setup. Objectives: To study 60 cases of laparotomy, dividing them into two groups of 30 each. Patients of one group will undergo closure of the laparotomy wound by conventional methods and the other group will undergo closure in a single layer. The objectives being to: Compare the operative time and healing time for single layer closure and conventional layered closure of laparotomy wounds. Compare the post-operative complications after performing single layer closure and conventional layered closure of laparotomy wounds, like seroma, wound infection, wound gaping, burst abdomen and incisional hernia. Result: Comparing both the closures, single layer closure had reduced operative time than conventional layered closure, and hence, lessens anaesthetic hazards, reduces cost of anesthetic agents and saves the surgeons time. Incidence of postoperative complications like seroma, wound infection, wound gaping; burst abdomen and incisional hernia are significantly less in single layer closure technique.
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Background: Tamil Nadu (TN) and Kerala, the two states of Indian constituency are located in the Indian Peninsula and divided by Western Ghats. Both states are having similarities in custom and culture. Kerala and Tamil Nadu had achieved the goals of Health for All by 2000 AD well in advance by 1987 and 1991respectively. The IDSP-NCD Risk Factors Survey Phase-I revealed risk factors which were influencing the prevalence of NCD in both states. Aim: To compare the prevalence of NCD and its risk factors between two states. Methodology: The demographic characteristics, risk factors of NCD and prevalence of hypertension and diabetes data were selected from the IDSP Survey Phase-I results. The participants of Tamil Nadu and Kerala were 5105 and 4838 persons respectively. Appropriate test of significance was applied for comparison. Results: Mean ages of study subjects of Tamil Nadu and Kerala were 39.5±13.5years 41.6±13.8 years respectively. Prevalence of Diabetes in Tamil Nadu and Kerala were 4.5% and 9.2% respectively and hypertension prevalence were 3.0% and 6.9% respectively in both states. Risk factors prevalence (%) between the states was Smoking 29.0 and 30.3%, Smokeless tobacco 22.5 and 11.5, Alcohol 28 and 32.8, Physical activities 4.3 and 7.1, Obesity 22.5 and 27.1 and Coconut oil consumption was 3.1 and 87.2 respectively. Discussion: In Kerala age and literates were significantly greater than Tamil Nadu. Except tobacco usage; other risk factors were significantly greater than Tamil Nadu. Smoking was not significant and smokeless tobacco was significantly less in Kerala. The prevalence of HT and Diabetes were significantly more in Kerala than Tamil Nadu. Conclusion: High Prevalence of HT and Diabetes in Kerala compared to Tamil Nadu may be attributed to the high rate of consumption of Coconut oil (87.2%) and Alcohol (32.8%) in spite of having more physical activities (7.1%).
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S Anna Venus, S Anbarasu, Prem Anand Devarajan
Potassium L - threoninate (PLT), a New Second order non linear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation method for the first time. The unit cell parameters of as the grown crystal was estimated by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The as grown crystal was subjected to X-ray Powder diffraction studies to identify the crystalline nature. The UV-Vis absorption spectra was recorded to estimate the cut-off wavelength. The presence of functional groups were ascertained by FTIR analysis. The thermal stability of the crystal was determined by TG/DT analysis. The hardness of the crystal was studied by Vickers micro hardness tester. The SHG efficiency was tested by Kurtz Powder method. Dielectric measurements were carried out at various temperatures in the frequency range 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The AC conductivity measurements done on PLT reveals that PLT crystal has a sharp electrical conductivity with an increase of temperature.
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